Saturday 8 January 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : Scientific Achievements - 1

1. Developed a satellite for domestic communication
The Indian National Satellite System or the INSAT is India's very own domestic communication satellite. It has two multipurpose satellites in geostationary orbit, each of which has twelve 36 MHz-wide C-band channels, two 36 MHz-wide S-band channels and a Very High Resolution. India is one of the only few countries to have such a satellite. It is an extraordinary achievement and puts us on the spot with some very developed nations. It has 5 large earth stations and 13 medium earth stations along with 10 remote area terminals. It is regarded as one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems and all the operational communication satellites of it are placed in the geostationary orbit.
2. One of the five nations to launch a nuclear submarine
India secured a spot among the only five nations to have launched a nuclear submarine by the name INS Arihant. This is India's first step towards establishing a dominant position in all three domains. INS Arihant is a 5,000 Km range Submarine. The completion of the successful deterrence patrol of the indigenous INS Arihant in November 2018 marks a new era for India's nuclear defence capabilities. Like we said earlier, this nuclear submarine is indigenous which adds another feather to our cap of achievements. India with this addition has adorned its naval fleet with a crowning jewel. Interestingly, this submarine was launched on Vijay Diwas by Dr. Manmohan Singh. The 20-day long patrol in November 2018 marks the completion of India's nuclear triad.

3. Discovery of the Fibonacci numbers by Virahanka
While the proper application and usage may be discovered a while later it is found that the Fibonacci numbers were actually discovered by the scholar Virahanka. What is generally referred to as the Fibonacci numbers and the method for their formation were given by Virahaṅka between A.D. 600 and 800. The reference to this has been found in journals of Gopala (prior to A.D. 1135) and Hemacandra (c. A.D. 1150), all prior to L. Fibonacci (c. A.D. 1202). This means that way before Fibonacci, we already had the know-how of the same. Narayaṅna Paṅḋita (A.D. 1356) established a relation between his swastika-paṅkti, which contains Fibonacci numbers as a particular case, and the multinomial coefficients. This is also a testament to the fact that many such ancient discoveries lie unappreciated and unearthed.

4. As a Technological Hub
It is quite an interesting fact to know that India is one of the greatest hubs for Information Technology services. A report showed that out of the top 20 best Information Technology companies in the world, 5 companies are Indian companies. These companies include TCS, Infosys, Wipro, Cognizant, and HCL technologies. Apart from these five companies, we also are aware of India's tremendous contribution to Silicon Valley. 

Indian Tech companies have driven growth, increased access to resources, healthcare, and education, creating jobs, resulting in falling poverty levels, and advanced lifestyles. India is at the forefront of technology, innovation, and entrepreneurship, and 2019 has been regarded as quite the year for the Indian start-up ecosystem.
The nation is home to some of the youngest entrepreneurs in the world, with the average age of founders at a mere 27 years. The strong ecosystem has seen a rising number of successful start-ups being churned out and exits taking place, indicating signs of a maturing ecosystem. This has definitely led to an increase in superior quality entrepreneurs, investors, and mentors with past experience helping develop and accelerate new businesses. Multiple Indian start-ups are valued at US $1 billion or more.

Over the years, the nation has managed to overcome numerous adversities, including the shifting economic environments, a dearth in infrastructure, and inefficiencies within the system in addition to social and cultural barriers. The robust ecosystem has come of age and there are now more platforms for entrepreneurs to learn, develop, and create great companies than ever before.

The increasing middle class has also given rise to a new breed of entrepreneurs: educated, young, smart, ambitious, passionate, driven, and hard-working. The nation can now only move forward from here.  
5. Solar Potential of India
India's commitment to using renewable sources of energy is fairly new. This however does not mean that we have not endeavoured to equip ourselves with the setup to utilise renewable sources of energy such as solar power.

India's total solar power capacity alone has advanced by more than 11 times for the last five years. From the year 2014 to 2020, the solar power capacity of India has increased from 2.6 GigaWatts (GW) to 38 GW. Solar power in India can help us tremendously. In fact, companies like Sukam power systems have electrified many schools in Africa in order to support the education of children in Africa. The solar power potential in India is very high and we have 20 Terawatts worth of solar power. States like Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Rajasthan have topped the list of states with the highest capacity installed solar power projects in the nation. The state of Karnataka alone has 5.3 Terawatts worth of solar panels. This further is accompanied by the world's first fully solar electrified airport in Kochi and the world's first fully solar electrified cricket stadium in Bangalore. This makes us environmentally conscious and responsible as well.

Reports have mentioned that India has one of the most competitive and lowest per-unit costs of solar power in the world. Per unit charge of solar power in India is nearly around Rs. 2.47.
6. Discovering a supercluster of galaxies
It is quite an interesting thing to know that a group of Indian astronomers discovered a supercluster of galaxies. Someone with no formal knowledge and study made this astonishing discovery. This supercluster of galaxies is one of the largest known structures in the neighbourhood of the universe and is as big as 20 billion suns. The same has been named 'Saraswati'. It is interesting to see how we have such untapped human resources.
7. Developing the atomic clock
The Indian Space Research Organisation or ISRO has made a path-breaking discovery. This is the invention of the atomic clock. With this invention, ISRO has put itself among the only few who possess this sophisticated technology. This clock is extremely useful in navigation satellites and also to measure precise location data. Currently inventing this, European aerospace imported the atomic clocks with a manufacturer named Astrium. It is honourable to know that we now possess this technology and can manufacture it indigenously.
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