Wednesday, 24 August 2022

Narmad's Contribution : A Critical Study


In 1947, India became free from colonial power. To make their nation free, the efforts were done from entire country. In Pre-independent period, Aurbindo, Vivekanand, Bhartendu, Narmad and many among the others had vision and dream for their nation. These all were aware about the reasons of darkness prevailing in the contemporary society. They all made efforts their best to light the society by their intellectuality and literary outputs. These scholars were conscious about the glory as well as golden past of India too. The chief aim of these people was 'victory over slavery' here slavery means both, to make India free from colonial power and shedding off old shackles of social evils from the inner states of mind of the people of India. These scholars, who came from every part of India of this time, took such task as challenge to give their nation new outlook from every dimension like political, social, moral, cultural, literary etc with their every possible effort.

In the nineteenth century, Narmad, Durgaram, Karsandas Mulji, Ranchhodbhai, Navalram, Dalpatram, Mahipatram, Rupram, Nandshankar, Bholanath, Sarabhai are considered outstanding literary figures in Indian literature of Gujarati language. In the time of Indian Renaissance, like in other parts of the country, the changes wave evident in Gujarat too. In 1825, Ranchhodbhai supported in situating "Native Education Society "in Bharuch. The "Elphinstion Institution" also situated in 1827. Such institutions including "Budhivardhak Sabha" and "Gujarat vernacular society" were inspired to scholars to think broad and universal. K.M. Munshi points out;

It saw the high water mark of fascination for all things western and contempt for many things Indian. It gave birth to renaissance in literature; to a new language and a literary techinque and tradition based on the Romanticism which dominated English literature in the first half of the nineteenth century. " (Munshi)

Narmadashankar Lalshankar (24 August 1833-1886), the father of modern Gujarati prose, is one of the most prominent Indian writers of Gujarati language. He is also considered as father of modern Gujarati prose. Kanaiyalal Munshi called him "First in modern", Sundaram called him "Pranvanto Purvaj". Narmad who studied in Elphinstone Institution in Bombay was not only great writer but also a good reader and observer. He read many European and world's the best writer. Gujarat was completely under colonial rule by the second decade of the nineteenth century. However it is true that Narmad was attracted towards system of the Britishers but Mahavirsinh Chauhan makes clear this issue. He writes;

"....... Narmad, who all his life worked for the nationalist revival and vigorously opposed the English rule paradoxically could not remain unaffected from this trend and praised the British. It is not that the poets of Gujarati alone felt this dilemma. The Hindi poets of that Age too suffered from the same state of mind."(Chauhan)


Narmad's voice and vision echoed renaissance spirit. He was unsatisfied with the social situation of his country and countryman. He was ashamed about what they lost. He had vision for India and he gave words to his vision. Pramod K.Patel writes;

"Narmda had a vision of his country becoming politically independent. But a strong strain in his writings has always been to make others understand what a variety political independence is to achieve this people have to unshackle themselves of all social hindrances and obstacles." (Patel)

Both in his prose and his poetry Narmad was able to express his vision. In his words we can imagine his patriotism. Narmad's patriotism has two aspects - one is criticism of the British rule and the other is laying emphasis on national unity. In 1864 He wrote "Hinduo-ni-padati", The down fall of Hindus." He writes in it.

"Low, indeed, has she fallen, this motherland of Hindus, she has Lost all power. In shame, she hags down her head".(Narmad)

Narmad gave the importance of patriotism in his poem too. As he writes;

"where has gone the love we bore it? And where, the pride we felt in it? A country will never rise without Patriotism; without it, it is but a wilderness, frightful and devouring; people have no political unity; the bond of the cast divide them. They are in the very Jaws of the Tiger".(Narmad)

Narmad narrated that why one should has the proud of one's nation and importance of unity among countryman in the following lines which depicts his national consciousness and patriotism:

"One's proud of nation create unity among the people of country. Strength increase by unity, and by strength the enemy can be defeated and country gets fame...."(Narmad)

Narmad called "Proud of nation" to the freedom fighters. He writes;

"Tatya tope who intimated and drove out the Britishers is known far and wide, valiant and chivalrous, Rani of Jhansi, I can lay down my life for you, you have made the Hindus proud."(Narmad)

Narmad knew that one language of all nation is needed for national unity. As he points out;

"Script of language should Devnagri so the people of entire country can read the books. The scripts of Hindi and Marathi languages are Devnagari while the scripts of Gujarati and Bengoli Should be the same for countrymen. Hindi, which is easy to understand everywhere, everyone should learn to read and to write" (Narmad)

However Narmad wrote in Gujarati language but his writings address to entire nation, beyond the boundaries of languages. As Mansukhlal Zaveri remarks;

"It is pertinent to note that Narmad's India is exclusively a Hindu India. He therefore exfols the glory of the Hidnu as the glory of India, and holds the flwas in the character of the Hindus and their socio-economic inequities responsible for the decline and degeneration of India".(Zaveri)


In September 1864, Narmad and his friends, Girdharilal, Nagindas, Keshavlal, Shridhar, Thakordas started bi-monthly Journal "Dandio" It was their action for awaking the contemporory society from the grass-roots to upper class. It became popular in very short time. This was started from 1, September 1864 and came to and end almost 15, December 1869, the chief aim of "Dandio" was to bring social reform from superstitions and myth about age old traditions. Munshi writes about "Dandio":

"………..through his Journal, "Dandio", The town crier, Narmad poured a stream of lava, burning or scorching all things rooted in convention"(Munshi)

Narmad and his friends chiefly aimed to expose crimes and scandals of white color people and to bring national harmony and rise of patriotism among people, who were illiterate and ignorant. Narmad and his group wanted to show to the people about what was actually and exactly happening in the society through this journal. The journal was not only for crimes and criminals, but also published useful things, world's new thoughts. Many points were discussed like "What is happiness" and many among the others. It worked like alarm for people who were not on right way. Between many difficulties and oppositions, Narmad proves his achievement. No one was given forgiveness of their crimes. The articles which were published with proofs. Vijayroy Vaid says it "Ghulam Prajanu Azad patra". "Dandio" was as popular as "Shatpatra" (1849) in Maharashtra by Gopal Hari Deshmukh and in Uttar Pradesh Raja Shiv prasad's "Banaras Akhbar". "Dandio" was successful achievement of Narmad. A.K.Singh rightly observes;

" The news papers, magazines, journals like kavi vachan sudha in Hindi, Dandio in Gujarati or keral patrika in Malayalam played their pivotal roles in resisting colonization, reclaiming India's past, reforming the society and even imagining the community or country"(Singh)


Narmad made up his mind to remove all nuisances from society like belief in ghost, sati tradition, remarriage, child marriage and untouched ability. Narmad had voiced for rights of women too. These nuisances were also existence in first half of twentieth century which can be reflected in the work of Raja Rao, Premchand, M.K.Gandhi and many more but in nineteenth century it was Narmad and his contemporaries who saw and recognized these nuisances and tried to remove it from society with its roots for making healthy society. To eradicate the old tradition, Narmad married a widow. This problem was deeply rooted in Indian society during colonial and pre-colonial period and also took a more time to free the society but Narmad set a new example and accepted all challenges. Premchand, a well known Indian writer of Hindi language, gave a picture of such typical Indian traditions in his novels and stories including "Godan"(1936). Narmad was rebel by nature and he was a man of action as Mahavirsing chauhan observes;

"The most powerful and impressive poetry imbued with national consciousness is seen in Narmad. A crusader against social conventions and religious superstitions, Narmad was by nature a rebeal. He showed his rebellious disposition in both social and political spheres."(Chauhan)

Narmad dreamt for India and Indians. He accepted new things from everywhere. In his vision and voice we realize his national consciousness and the spirit of renaissance. He tried to make every Indian the person of world with broad world views. The ideas of Narmad were followed by many outstanding literary figures of India. Narmad and his friends tried all to make their country "The Great" and they success in their target. They could not change all things the way they wanted to but their reformation did occur after initial slow pace.

Narmad contributed largely to bring in national awareness by addressing regional issues, Narmad, ideal for youth has given priceless contribution in Indian literature and he also succeeded to give words to his vision and views. The period in which he lived was named after him "The Narmad Age" in Gujarati literature.

Reference :::

  1. Kanaiyalal Munshi, Gujarat and it's literature, Bhartiya vidya Bhavan, 1967, P147
  2. Mahavirsinh Chauhan, "National Consiciousness in Gujarati poetry", Eds, A.K.Singh, Indian Renassance literature, cerative Books, New-Delhi, P.-129
  3. Pramod K.Patel, "Indian Renaissance and its various facts with special Reference to Gujarati literature."
  4. Mahavirsinh Chauhan, "National consciousness in Gujarati poetry", Eds, A.K.Singh, Indian Renaissance literature, creative Books, New - Delhi, P-133
  5. Narmad, "Hindu-ni-Padati, Narm Kavita-2, Kavi Narmad Yagavat Trust, 1997, Surat, P-88
  6. Narmad, "Swadesjabhiman", "Narm gadya, Kavi Narmad Yugavat Trust, Surat. P-25
  7. Narmad, Narmakavita, p-362
  8. Narmad, "Gujaratni sthiti" Narmagdya P.67
  9. Narmad, Narmakavita P-364
  10. Narmad, "Aapni Desh Janta", Narmgadya-2 p.41
  11. Mansukhlal Zavari, "History of Gujarati literature, Sahitya Akademi, New-Delhi, P-80
  12. Kanaiyalal Munshi, Gujarat and it's literature, P-150
  13. A.K.Singh, "Preface", Indian Renaissance literature, Eds,A.K.Singh Creative Books, New-Delhi P.26
  14. Mahavirsinh Chauhan, "National consciousness in Gujarati poetry", P-132-133
courtesy :

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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Tuesday, 23 August 2022

Anna Mani: The Pioneer Indian Meteorologist (E) & The Weather Woman of India

Anna Mani was an Indian physicist and meteorologist. She was the Deputy Director General of the Indian Meteorological Department. She made significant contributions in the field of meteorological instrumentation. She conducted research and published numerous papers on solar radiation, ozone and wind energy measurements. After graduating physics and chemistry, she worked under Prof. C V Raman, researching the optical properties of ruby and diamond. She authored five research papers, but she was not granted a PhD because she did not have a master's degree in physics. Then she moved to Britain to study pursue physics, but she ended up studying meteorological instruments at Imperial College London. After returning to India in 1948, she joined the Meteorological department in Pune. In 1960, Mani started her work on measuring atmospheric ozone, before the world even understood the ozone layer's functions. She designed an instrument - ozonesonde - to measure atmospheric ozone. She also set up a meteorological observatory at the Thumba rocket launching facility.

An appreciation of Anna Mani Anna Mani (by Abha Sur)

Anna Mani grew up in a prosperous family in the state of Travancore, a former princely state in the Southern part of India, now part of Kerala. Born in 23 August 1918, she was the seventh of eight siblings. Anna Mani's father was a civil engineer with large cardamom estates to his name.

The Mani family was a typical upper-class professional household where from childhood the male children were groomed for high-level careers, whereas the daughters were primed for marriage. But Anna Mani would have none of it. Her formative years were spent engrossed in books. By the age of eight, she had read almost all the books in Malayalam at her public library and, by the time she was twelve, all the books in English. On her eighth birthday she declined to accept her family's customary gift of a set of diamond earrings, opting instead for a set of Encyclopedia Britannica. The world of books opened her to new ideas and imbued in her a deep sense of social justice which informed and shaped her life.

In 1925, at the height of the Vaikom Satyagraha where people of all castes and religions across Travancore protested the decision by the priests of a temple in the city of Vaikom to bar dalits from using the road adjacent to the temple, Mahatma Gandhi came to Vaikom to lend his support to the civil disobedience movement. The motto of the satyagraha, 'one caste, one religion, and one god for men [sic]' became the rallying cry of the progressives who demanded that all Hindus irrespective of their caste be allowed entry into the temples of the state. The satyagraha, and especially Gandhi's visit, made a deep impression on young and idealistic Anna.

In subsequent years, as the nationalist movement gained momentum and the Indian National Congress adopted complete independence as its goal, Anna Mani became increasingly drawn to nationalist politics. Although she did not join any particular movement, she took to wearing only khadi as a symbol of her nationalist sympathies. A strong sense of nationalism also reinforced in her a willingness to fight for a fiercely desired personal freedom. When she insisted upon pursuing higher studies instead of following in the footsteps of her sisters, who got married in their late teens, there was neither active opposition nor encouragement from her family.

Anna Mani had wanted to study medicine, but when that was not possible she decided in favor of physics because she happened to be good in the subject. Anna Mani enrolled in the honors program in physics at the Presidency College in Madras (now Chennai). In 1940, a year after finishing college, Anna Mani obtained a scholarship to do research in physics at the Indian Institute of Science and was accepted in C.V. Raman's laboratory as a graduate student. In Raman's laboratory, Anna Mani worked on the spectroscopy of diamonds and rubies. During this period Raman's laboratory was immersed in the study of diamonds because of Raman's ongoing controversies with Max Born on crystal dynamics and with Kathleen Lonsdale on the structure of the diamond. He had a collection of three hundred diamonds from India and Africa and practically all his students worked on some aspect of diamonds.

Anna Mani recorded and analyzed fluorescence, absorption, and Raman spectra including the temperature dependence and polarization effects of over thirty different diamonds. The experiments were long and painstaking: the crystals were held at liquid air temperatures, and the weak luminescence of some of the diamonds required fifteen to twenty hours of exposure time to record the spectrum on photographic plates. Anna Mani spent long hours in the laboratory, sometimes working through the night.

Between 1942 and 1945, she published five papers singleauthored on the luminescence of diamonds and rubies. In August  1945 she submitted her Ph.D. dissertation to Madras University and was awarded a government scholarship for an internship in England.

However, Anna Mani was never accorded the Ph.D. degree she so rightly deserved. Madras University, which at that time formally granted degrees for work done at the Indian Institute of Science, claimed that Anna Mani did not have a M.Sc. degree and therefore she could not possibly be granted a Ph.D. They chose to overlook that Anna Mani had graduated with honors in physics and chemistry, and had won a scholarship for graduate studies at the Indian Institute of Science on the basis of her undergraduate degree. To this day her completed Ph.D. dissertation remains in the library of Raman Research Institute, indistinguishable from other bound dissertations, with no indication that Anna Mani's dissertation did not result in a degree for her. Anna Mani, however, bore no grudge against this miscarriage of justice and insisted that lack of a Ph.D. degree made little difference in her life.

She left for England soon after finishing her research work in Raman's laboratory. Although her preference had been to pursue research in physics, she ended up specializing in meteorological instrumentation as it was the only scholarship available to her at that time.

Anna Mani returned to independent India in 1948 and joined the Indian Meteorological Department at Pune. At the department, Anna Mani was in charge of construction of radiation instrumentation. In a career of almost 30 years, she published a number of papers on topics ranging from atmospheric ozone to the need for international instrument comparisons and national standardization of meteorological instrumentation, retiring as Deputy Director General of the Indian Meteorological Department in 1976. She subsequently returned to the Raman Research Institute as a visiting professor for three years.

She published two books, The Handbook for Solar Radiation Data for India (1980) and Solar Radiation over India (1981), and worked on several projects for harnessing wind energy in India. Later, in the industrial suburbs of Bangalore, Anna Mani started a small company that manufactured instruments for measuring wind speed and solar energy. Anna Mani believed that the development of wind and solar energy in India required detailed knowledge of solar fluxes and wind patterns in different regions of India, and it was her hope that the instruments produced in her factory would have wide utility in procuring this information.

However, despite her interest in and involvement with environmental issues, Anna Mani never saw herself as an environmentalist ("carpet baggers" as she called them) who seemed to be "always in orbit." She preferred to stay in one place.

Anna Mani had a very matter-of-fact view of her life and achievements. She saw nothing unusual in her pursuing physics in an era where it was possible to count all women physicists in India on one's fingertips. She made light of the difficulties and discrimination she encountered as a woman scientist and was disdainful of victim politics. She actively resisted coercive gender identities which limited women's potential as well as posited different intellectual capabilities in men and women.

It is no surprise that Anna Mani's is a success story to which few women (or men) could aspire. She transcended the limited cultural spaces available to her and not only created a room of her own, and a laboratory of her own but a whole workshop, a mini factory of her own.

(Courtesy and Source: Lilavati's Daughters and Abha Sur)
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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Monday, 22 August 2022

​Late Eknath Ranade is role model for entire country: Mohanji Bhagwat

Late Eknath Ranade is role model for entire country: Mohanji Bhagwat

"Late Eknath Ranade with sheer dint of his industriousness, determination, courage, intellect, strength and all inclusive attitude became the best role model for the countrymen to emulate and follow", said Param Pujya Sarsanghchalak Dr. Mohanrao Bhagwat.

The RSS Chief was delivering Eknath Ranade Birth Centenary Memorial lecture organised by New English High School Association at Nagpur on December 30 on the topic "Late Eknathji Ranade – Man and Mission". RSS Sarkaryawah Suresh (Bhayyaji) Joshi, Association President Dr. A W Vyavahare and Vivekananda Kendra Regional Coordinatior Vishwas Lapalkar shared the dais.

Late Eknath Ranade, who was a student of New English High School, was the founder of Swami Vivekananda Rock Memorial, Kanyakumari and Vivekananda Kendra. The lecture was thus organised by the New Enghish High School Association as a tribute to this past student.

Dr. Bhagwat said that these qualities in late Eknath Ranade's personality were further sharpened and honed properly under the guidance of RSS founder Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar and his immediate successor late M S Golwalkar (Sri Guruji). Emulating his example and following them in our life would be the best tribute to him, the RSS Chief said.

Sharing his views with the large audience that gathered at the open ground of New English High School in Congress Nagar while Nagpur shivered under the impat of 5 degree celcius temperature on the penultimate day of the year that just passed, Dr. Bhagwat narrated a number of incidents from the life of late Ranade. Through such experiences he learnt his lessons for life and drew inspiration to build his personality and positive attitude and thinking, he said.

These qualities imbibed by him were put at test during the completion of the Vivekananda Rock Memorial at Kanyakumari and later when he started the order of Life Workers of Vivekananda Kendra, the RSS Chief explained.

Unfolding the history of Swami Vivekananda Rock Memorial and the efforts the late Eknath Ranade took to accomplish this very difficult task, the RSS Chief said that Eknath Ranade managed to convince leaders of all the political parties including the then Union Minister Humayun Kabir and Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Bhaktvatsalam who had shown strong opposition to such a memorial of Swami Vivekananda in the southern sea.

Ameliorating the condition of the people standing at the end of the social ladder was the core of thoughts and actions of Swami Vivekananda and Ekanth Ranade. This same thought is practiced by RSS on a wider canvass, he said.

Ekanth Ranade conceived, and planned construction of rock memorial and completed it with full determination. The initiation of the Life Worker Order to propagate the thoughts of Swami Vivekananda was the next logical step of his mission and today we find hundreds of such dedicated youth working in the remote areas of the country serving the poor, the neglected and the downtrodden taking them to be their Gods.

Dr. Bhagwat dwelt at length on various aspects of Eknath Ranade's life as a student at Hislop College, as a Swayamsevak, as a Pracarak and as a Sarkarywah of RSS till he was entrusted with the responsibility of Rock Memorial in 1962 to highlight the best of his qualities and principles of life.

Strong resolve, working with dedication and determination accompanied with hard work, bravery, and systematic bent of mind he was able to translate his dreams in reality. Having full faith in serving those who are in need, helping them to become self-reliant, grooming them to serve others and dominate the society with such dedicated persons was the dream Ekanth Ranade cherished in his heart and worked relentlessly for its realization.

We all have a responsibility to understand his thoughts and work with the same zeal. This is the best way to pay tributes to this great soul, Dr. Bhagwat said.

(Source - Newsbharati)

कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra :
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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26