Tuesday, 15 March 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : Bharatikrishna Tirthaji Maharaj

VEDIC MATHEMATICS presently known as the modern mathematics is completely based on ALGEBRA. It is rediscovered by the greatest mathematician and the Shankaracharya Jagadguru Bharatikrishna Tirthaji Maharaj of Govardhan math puri; Odisha. He is the 143rd Shankaracharya of Govardhan math.

He was born on 14th March 1884 in a small village of Tamil Nadu named "Tinnivelly". His childhood name was Venkatraman. His father, Shri P. Narasimha Shastri, was then a Tahsildar at Tinnivelly (Madras residency). At the age of twenty years he completed his post graduation in six different subjects like Mathematics, Science, History, Philosophy, English and Sanskrit from the Bombay centre of American college of Science Rochester; New York. He was a greatest orator of Sanskrit and awarded the title of "SARASWATI" for his all round proficiency in Sanskrit by the Sanskrit association of Madras. In 1902 he won the highest place in the graduation B.A. examination.

In 1908 he proceeded to Sringeri Math in Mysore to lay himself at the feet of Jagadguru Shankaracharya Maharaj Shri Satchidananda Shivabhinava Nrisimha Bharati Swami. there he was offered the post of the first Principal of the newly started National college at Rajmahendri.  At the age of twenty seven (27) years he studied advanced Vedanta philosophy for eight years from 1911 to 1919 and practised Brahma-Sadhana at the feed of Shri Nrisimha Bharati swami.

In 1919 he was initiated into the holy order of Sannyasa at Varanasi by H.H. Jagadguru Shankaracharya Shri Trivikrama Tirthaji Maharaja of Sharadapeetha and was given the new name, Swami Bharati Krishna tirtha. Three years later in 1921 he was throned as the Shankaracharya of Sharada peetha. In 1925 he shifted to puri when he was installed as Jagadguru Shankaracharya of the Govardhan math. In 1953 he founded in institution named "SHRI VISHWA PUNRNIRMANA SANGHA"  (World Reconstruction Association) in Nagpur, with Shri Chimanlal Ttrivedi as the general secretary.

It was during his deep meditation retreats between the year 1911 to 1919 in the Shringeri forest he became aware of the sixteen sutras later he associated them with vedic mathematics.

From 1911-1918 Bharati Krishnaji practiced deep meditation and studied metaphysics and Vedas which led him to practice an arduous life of a Sadhu (saint). He was leading a purely saintly life living on roots and fruits. His life was continuous "Sadhana" (meditation) and he devoted himself to the study of Vedanta and resorted to the forest for deep meditation and spiritual attainments.

In his solitude he discerned the "Ganita-Sutras" or easy Mathematical Formulas on which he compiled the monumental work "Vedic Mathematics" an original contribution in the field of Mathematics and Research. Bharati Krishnaji got the key to Ganita Sutra coded in the Atharva Veda and rediscovered Vedic Maths with the help of lexicographs .

He found "Sixteen Sutras" or word formulas which cover all the branches of Mathematics – Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry, Physics, plan and spherical geometry, conics, calculus- both differential and integral, applied mathematics of all various kinds, dynamics, hydrostatics and all.

Due to some undisclosed reasons Bharati Krishna Tirthaji borrowed a large sum of money from Shri Manilal Desai, a money lender and devotee of Dakor. As a security against borrowed amount Bharati Krishna Tirthaji pledged his manuscript note books which he packed away safely in few tin trunk boxes and left in the care of Shri Manilal Desai. He was not able to repay the amount owed until 1955 or so. By then the boxes had fallen under the charge of Shri Laxminarayan, the son of Shri Manilal Desai. He transported those manuscripts from Dakor to his residence at Asarva in Ahmadabad. Shri Laxminarayan sold those manuscript to a German scholar with a large amount of money (at 50 dollar per manuscript as said by the present guru, the 145th Shankaracharya of Govardhan math.)

After the confirmation of the loss of the manuscripts of VM most likely sometime in 1956, Bharati Krishna tirthaji was requested by his ardent devotees to rewrite them. On their request, in 1957, in his old age and ill health with weak eyesight (cataract) he wrote the presently available book. Vedic mathematics. In 1958 the type script of Vedic mathematics was left in US. For publication.

Bharati Krishna Tirthaji attained Mahasamadhi On 2nd February 1960 and five years after his book Vedic mathematics was published.

He inspired many people across the world. : https://vedicmathsindia.org/


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कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Monday, 21 February 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar: A Pensive Pioneer of Indian Science and Technology

Sir Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar – The Great Indian Scientist who is known as "The Father of Science and Technology in India"
Shanti-Swaroop-Bhatnagar-Biography-Inspirer-Today-Be-An-InspirerSir Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar

Quick Facts

  • Name: Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar
  • Also Known As: The Father of Research Laboratories
  • Famous As: Professor, Scientist 
  • Nationality: Indian
  • Birth Date: 21 February 1894
  • Birth Place: Bhera, Shahpur District, British India (now in Pakistan)
  • Died On: 1 January 1955 (aged 60)
  • Awards: Order of the British Empire (1936), Knight Bachelor (1941), Fellow of the Royal Society (1943), Padma Bhushan (1954)
Sir Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar was a renowned Indian scientist and a professor of chemistry for over two decades. He was the first director-general of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), and he is revered as the "Father of research laboratories".

He was also the first Chairman of the University Grants Commission (UGC). To honour his contributions, CSIR instituted the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, since 1958 for outstanding scientists of India.

Sir Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar was born on 21 February 1894, in Bhera, Punjab region of British India, which is now in Pakistan. His father, Parmeshwari Sahai Bhatnagar, died when he was just a few months old.

He was brought up in his maternal grandfather's house, who was an engineer, and an inspiration for young Shanti Swaroop, who developed an interest in engineering and science from an early age. He had his elementary education at the Dayanand Anglo-Vedic High School, Sikandrabad.

In 1911, he joined the Dayal Singh College, Lahore, where he also took interest in dramatics and also wrote one-act plays. In 1913, he passed the Intermediate Examination of the Punjab University, and joined the Forman Christian College from where he did his BSc in physics in 1916, and MSc in Chemistry in 1919.

Education and Research Work
Bhatnagar got a scholarship from Dayal Singh College Trust to study abroad. He left for America via England, but in England he was not able to sail to America as all ships were reserved for American troops in the wake of the First World War.

He was permitted to join the University College London. In 1921, he earned his DSc. While in London, he was also awarded the British Department of Scientific and Industrial Research fellowship.

In August 1921, he returned to India and joined the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) as a professor of chemistry. He worked for three years. Then he moved to Lahore as Professor of Physical Chemistry and Director of University Chemical Laboratories of the University of the Punjab. This was the most active period of his life in original scientific work.

His research interests included emulsions, colloids and industrial chemistry. His research works were in the field of magneto-chemistry, the use of magnetism for the study of chemical reactions.

In 1928, he and K.N. Mathur jointly invented the Bhatnagar-Mathur Magnetic Interference Balance. At that time this was one of the most sensitive instruments for measuring magnetic properties.

In 1931, it was exhibited at the Royal Society and later marketed by Messers Adam Hilger and Co, London.

Professional Achievements
Bhatnagar was a university professor for 19 years, from 1921 to 1940; first at the Banaras Hindu University and later then at the Punjab University. He had a reputation as a very inspiring teacher.

Bhatnagar's first industrial solution was to develop the process for converting bagasse (used sugarcane) into food-cake for cattle. He also solved industrial problems for Delhi Cloth & General Mills, J.K. Mills Ltd., Tata Oil Mills Ltd. and many more.

One of his major innovation was improving the procedure for drilling crude oil which was done for Steel Brothers & Co. Ltd. of London. The company offered Bhatnagar a sum of Rs. 150,000 for research work through the university and it was used to establish the Department of Petroleum Research. This helped research related to petroleum product and process.

Contributions to Industrial Research in India
In 1940, the Board of Scientific and Industrial Research (BSIR) was formed by the Government of India and Bhatnagar was appointed as the Director.

In 1942, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) was constituted as an autonomous body. In 1943, the proposal mooted by Bhatnagar to establish five national laboratories was approved. These included National Chemical Laboratory, National Physical Laboratory, Fuel Research Station; which were set up to mark the beginning of scientific laboratories in India.

At CSIR, he also mentored a number of promising young scientists of the time. Bhatnagar along with Homi Jehangir Bhabha, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, Vikram Sarabhai and others, helped in building India's post-independence science and technology infrastructure.

After India's independence, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) was set up under the chairmanship of Dr. Bhatnagar. He became its first Director-General.

He established a total of twelve national laboratories which include the Central Food Processing Technological Institute, Mysore; the National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur; the Central Fuel Institute, Dhanbad, to name a few.

He also served as the Secretary of the Ministry of Education and Educational Adviser to the government. He played an instrumental role in the establishment of the National Research Development Corporation (NRDC) of India.

Honours and Recognitions
Bhatnagar was appointed as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 1936, for his contributions to pure and applied chemistry.

He was knighted with the title "Sir", in 1941 for his contributions to the advancement of science.

In 1943, the Society of Chemical Industry, London, elected him as Honorary Member and later as Vice President.

Bhatnagar was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1943.

Post-independence in India, he became the President of the Indian Chemical Society, National Institute of Sciences of India and the Indian National Science Congress.

He was awarded Padma Bhushan by the Government of India in 1954.

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology was instituted in his honour, which is the most prestigious award for science in India.

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कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra : http://www.vivekanandakendra.org
Read n Get Articles, Magazines, Books @ http://prakashan.vivekanandakendra.org

Let's work on "Swamiji's Vision - Eknathji's Mission"

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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Saturday, 29 January 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : Yugacharya Swami Pranavananda

Yugacharya Swami Pranavananda : (29 January 1896 – 8 February 1941)

The advent of His Holiness, Acharya Srimat Swami Pranavananda ji Maharaj was in 1896, in the village Bajitpur (Bangladesh) of undivided India. 'BINOD', as was called in his childhood days, was often found to be immersed in serious thoughts that culminated into deep meditation, aimed at 'Self Emancipation' and 'Upliftment of Human Beings', through spiritual development and selfless Services. As a brahmachari, he spent countless hours in meditation, spiritual trances and Seva (service to people).

He was born on 29 January 1896, the auspicious day of Maghi Purnima (16th Magha, 1302), in Bajitpur, a village in Faridpur District in undivided India (presently in Bangladesh). His parents Vishnu Charan Bhuia and Saradadevi were very pious and blessed by Lord Shiva to have a son for the mitigation of human suffering and universal emancipation. He was affectionately named Jaynath by his father at birth and later in his boyhood he was called Binode. Binode showed uncommon philosophical inclinations since childhood and often could be seen in deep contemplation at the village school. He was popular with the children of the locality because of his helpful nature.

The divine boy Vinod, as he was named, possessed by birth the nature of Shiva,– always calm and quiet, having little care for food or play. The meditative nature grew deeper as the boy became older; so much so that he could not properly attend his studies in school. At home also he would often pass whole night, unconscious of outside world, waking up only in the morning when someone knocked at the door.

Thus went on his deep meditation and severe "Brahmacharya Sadhna," till at last his diet became a handful of cooked rice and a few boiled potatoes and sleep was reduced to an hour only. Later on, he totally left off sleep for six long years at a stretch. At that time he would pass the whole night on the altar of penance in the cremation ground in meditation and spiritual trance.

He became the disciple of Baba Gambhiranathji and eventually attained the Divine Power, which illuminated His life. Those who wounded him were also endued with the same. Gradually, many people influenced by the ideologies of the Acharya, continued to extend and hold aloft His banner "BHARAT SEVASHRAM SANGHA", (the Ashram founded in 1917) as His disciples, (irrespective of caste, colour or religion). The Sangha is dedicated for the all round well being of people indulged in raising them to the Level of Divine Standard.

In those days of Indian Independence Movement, He was the source of inspiration to the Revolutionaries and personally took up people and goaded them to adopt selfless services in Natural Calamities. He was the torch-bearer to set up Village Level Industries, like Handloom and even introduced Dhekis (Indigenous Rice Hauler- manually operated) at all households. In these ways, He soughed out various ways of Income Generation Programmes to make the people living below the poverty line, such as the tribals to stand on their own feet.

Sangha's multifarious services provided all-around being well fortified with that blessings in the field of medical & educational services, relief and rehabilitation programmes, rural upliftment, social welfare, Tribal improvement, removal of un-touchability, cultural awakening, spiritual regeneration, youth's welI-being, physical culture and cult of heroism. Sangha today is on the vastly move with its divine mission spread all over the country and many a places in England, America, Canada, Guyana, Trinidad, Bangladesh, Nepal, Fiji etc. irrespective of caste, creed, colour, race, religion and nationality.

In his childhood and youth he has seen and experienced the condition of poor and illiterate people. He noticed that no person or organisation, even the then government has come forward to help suffering people during flood, famine or epidemic. He was aghast to see the weakness, timidity, selfishness and lethargy among the majority. There was no unity or fellow-feeling, the educated and rich used to avoid the poor people. The society was fractured due to in-fight based on caste, creed, community and religion. They were physically, mentally, morally and spiritually weak and unable to defend themselves and their friends and family members in case of need. They were always under fear of oppression from other communities and the foreign ruler. The political situation was against them. Later in his life he personally experienced the rude and arrogant behaviour of self-vested persons at major religious centres. He has seen thousands of people dying for non-availability of medical support, health-care and food. He found no one is caring the poor and neglected people and left them at the mercy of God and evil elements in society.
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कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra : http://www.vivekanandakendra.org
Read n Get Articles, Magazines, Books @ http://prakashan.vivekanandakendra.org

Let's work on "Swamiji's Vision - Eknathji's Mission"

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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Friday, 28 January 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : Ramanna Raja - India's Most Eminent Nuclear Physicist


Ramanna Raja : India's Most Eminent Nuclear Physicist

"A towering and multi-faceted personality, Dr. Ramanna was always keen to contribute to national development with a sense of mission in any capacity, which was evident in his role as a Union Minister and Member of Parliament. For us in the science and technology community, Dr. Ramanna was always a source of inspiration and a guide."
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, The President of India

"Out of the uncertain beginnings in the 1950s, if we have today achieved the status of a "developed country" in nuclear science and technology, it is in large measure a consequence of Dr. Ramanna's ideals, policies and efforts. He certainly leaves behind the proud legacy of a magnificent edifice of scientific and technological achievements and attainments, particularly towards the country's energy and national security."
P. K. Iyengar, former Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, Govt. of India

Raja Ramanna was a multifaceted personality – an eminent nuclear physicist, a highly accomplished technologist, an able administrator, an inspiring leader, a gifted musician, a scholar of Sanskrit literature and philosophy, and above all a completed human being. He made important contributions, both theoretical and experimental, in various areas of nuclear physics. He was not a so-called ivory tower scientist. Following the ideals of his illustrious predecessors Homi Bhabha and Vikram Sarabhai in India's nuclear energy programme, Ramanna played an important role in placing the country's indigenous nuclear capabilities on a firm footing and in this process his contributions towards shaping India's energy and security programmes are quite significant. In fact Ramanna is regarded as one of the most successful creators of Science and Technology in India. Ramanna's contribution to India's peaceful nuclear explosion experiment is well-known. India's first peaceful nuclear experiment was carried out underground in the Rajasthan desert on May 18, 1974. As Ramanna later pointed out, "The Pokhran experiment was a landmark in the history of nuclear research in the country. It was an assertion of the technological advancement India had determined to perfect in the post-independence era."

Ramanna was a staunch patriot. He could have easily settled abroad but he spurned the charm of living in a developed country and responded to the call of Homi Bhabha and joined India's effort to develop a strong indigenous base of science and technology. He helped to create an efficient manpower in the country. Ramanna had a deep interest in music. He himself was an accomplished musician. He wrote a book on music, The structure of Music in Raga and Western Music. He was actively involved in setting up the Bangalore School of Music. Ramanna had interest in philosophy. He also took keen interest in yoga. He had a sense of humour, that was subtle and enjoyable. He was a very simple person and he was approachable to all.

Raja Ramanna was an able administrator. He occupied many prestigious positions. He was the Director of the Bhaba Atomic Research Centre (1972-78 and 1981-83). He was Scientific Advisor to the Minister of Defence; Director-General, DRDO and Secretary for Defence Research, Government of India (1978-81). He was Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (1984-87). He was first Director of the National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore established by J. R. D. Tata. Ramanna served as the Minister of State for Defence in the Union Cabinet (January to November 1990). Ramanna was a nominated Member of the Parliament, Rajya Sabha, (August 1997-August 2003). He was a member of the first National Security Advisory Board. In whichever capacity he worked, he worked with a missionary zeal.

Besides his parents Ramanna was greatly influenced by one of his aunts. His mother's sister Ramanna wrote: "Another member of the family who was a quite influence on my life was my mother's sister, Rajamma. Widowed at a young age, Rajamma was considered a beauty as a young woman. After she lost her husband, my grandparents, who were progressive, had her trained to become a schoolteacher. Rajamma finally rose to become the headmistress of a Government Middle School on a salary of fifty rupees a month…A fantastic story-teller, Rajamma would often tell me stories from the Puranas and the great epics. In retrospect that was the best education I ever received. I'm proud of the fact that Raja, the name by which I am referred to by all my friends, is taken from my aunt's name—Rajamma."

He had his early education in Mysore and Bangalore. When his family shifted to Bangalore, Ramanna joined the Bishop Cotton School. The school was part of an English public school system that had been originally established as an orphanages of Anglo-Indian children. However, by the time Ramanna joined the school its character had been totally changed. It had become an elitist school. Commenting his school education Ramanna wrote: "Although I managed to do well in school as far as studies were concerned, I still felt somehow a misfit as I couldn't conform to a major activity in the curriculum set up by the British–sports. However, that did not pose a great problem because I'd another support system–music. Classical music during my school days, as evident today, was not particularly liked by many, but that did not kill my enthusiasm for it because the then warden of my school, Canon Elphick, was a music lover and I struck up a friendship with him…Yet another teacher whom I remember fondly at school was Maurice Lanyon. A missionary, he had come to India at a very young age, charged with the spirit of self-sacrifice. Lanyon was an excellent musician, a good pianist and a baritone with a fine voice and I used to wonder why, with his talent, he had come to India and buried himself in missionary service. I was drawn to him and recall several hours of playing the piano together and listening to lectures on musicology…The Bishop Cotton School, was known for its discipline and I benefited a lot from this. Despite facing problems of transition, my school kept up standards and remained a good institution within the definition of "good" of that period." From Bishop Cotton School he went St Joseph's School for his intermediate studies.

After completing his intermediate studies at St Joseph's, Bangalore he joined the Madras Christian College in Tambaram. He did very well in his intermediate examination. He was among the six students who were selected for BSc (Honours) course majoring in physics. After obtaining his BSc (Honours) degree in physics from Madras Christian College in Tambaram, he went to England to work for his doctoral in the field of nuclear physics at the King's College, London, as Tata Scholar. He obtained his PhD degree in 1948.

Ramanna was deeply influenced by Homi Jehangir Bhabha. He had met Bhabha for the first time in 1944. Ramanna was introduced to Bhabha by Dr. Alfred Mistowski, an examiner from the Trinity College of Music, who had to stay back in India due to the outbreak of the Second World War. Recalling his first meeting with Bhabha, Ramanna wrote: "One day, in 1944, Dr. Mistowski told me that there was a famous Indian scientist and his mother spending their vacation in the state guest house where he was staying and wondered whether, I, a science student, would like to meet them. He said the scientist was also interested in music, especially in Mozart. Apparently, they came down from their rooms every evening, formally dressed, in order to listen to music on the gramophone records. 'But,' Dr. Mistowski said 'you must of course know him, his name his Homi Bhabha.' My meeting with Bhabha would determine the course of the next several years of my life. But even as I looked forward to the future, I was aware that my youth and my childhood would now be in the past." This was not to be the first and last interaction with Bhabha. During one of his trips to London in 1947, Bhabha offered Ramanna a job in Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, the cradle of India's atomic energy programme. Bhabha allowed Ramanna to complete his PhD. Ramanna joined the TIFR on December 01, 1949. In those days TIFR was being developed. To quote B. V. Sreekantan, a colleague of Ramanna in TIFR: "When Ramanna joined TIFR, the institute had just been shifted from its first premises at Kenilworth, 54, Pedder Road, Cumbala Hills in Bombay to the Yatcht Club premises and alteration work of the building was in full swing. The so-called servants' quarters of the Yacht Club were converted as the hostel for unmarried scientists of TIFR. Bhabha, who had known Ramanna's interests and abilities in music, allotted him two adjacent rooms in the top-most fourth floor of the hostel, one for Ramanna and the other for his piano. The ground floor of the hostel became the nuclear physics laboratory of Ramanna, where he started his work on nuclear fission and scattering." Recalling his own impression of TIFR at the time of his joining Ramanna wrote in autobiography: "I joined the TIFR when it was in its fifth year and the initial problems of administration and finances had been overcome. To begin with, it was essentially a laboratory confined to aspects of science in which Bhabha was primarily interested. However, by the time I arrived the institute had expanded and now even had a School of Mathematics which helped it gain a stronger foothold as a major centre of learning. Among others, the school boasted on its faculty, Dr. D. D. Kosambi, who was not only an expert in differential geometry but was a numismatist, historian, linguist, Sanskrit scholar and a pleasant man who was something of a gourmet. I would have never learnt to appreciate Chinese food, especially crabs, had he not taken me to the Nanking Restaurant, across the road". Further he continues, "Although Bhabha's contribution to cosmic ray physics was internationally known even before his return to India at the outbreak of the War, the TIFR had yet to make its mark as a centre for scientific learning. Its work in theoretical physics was known because of the work done by Bhabha and his students, but the other branches had a long way to go. The experimental group started by Bhabha deserves special mention because they became the forerunners of all indigenous technological activity in the country and heralded the beginnings of an extensive atomic energy programme in India. The initiation of these activities was partly due to A. S. Rao, head of the Department of Electronics, who started these programmes under the most difficult of circumstances."

Ramanna made important contributions in several areas of neutron, nuclear and reactor physics. Ramanna played a leading role in organizing physics and rector physics programmes at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay. Ramanna was a young reactor physicist in the team under Bhabha, when India's first research reactor, Apsara, was commissioned on August 04, 1956. M. R. Srinivasan, a former Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission wrote: "A team with varied skills took charge of different aspects of the reactor. Raja Ramanna, a physicist from the Imperial College of Science in London, drew up the requirements for neutronic experiments. K. S. Singhvi, a theoretical physicist, headed the team's theoretical work on the physics of the reactor. A. S. Rao, an associate of Bhabha, was an electronics specialist in cosmic ray studies using balloons that were being sent up at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Rao was responsible for the control and instrumentation work. N. Bhanu Prasad was responsible for overall design of the reactor and auxiliary equipment. Homi Sethna, a chemical engineer, was manager of the India Rare Earths Plant; this plant extended logistic support to the construction of the swimming pool reactor. An important member of the team was V. T. Krishnan, an old school mechanical engineer who had been teaching in an engineering college in Maharashtra. He was put in charge of the construction of the reactor building and the reactor pool."

As a part of the studies relating to the design and construction of Apsara, India's first reactor, Ramanna studied the process of neutron thermalisation in several moderating assemblies. Ramanna and his group determined the neutron diffusion and slowing down constants in water and beryllium oxide by using a pulsed neutron source. The neutron spectra emerging out of these moderating assemblies were also studied. Apsara, once commissioned, made intense thermal neutron beams available for basic research. This prompted Ramanna to undertake a programme of experimental investigations of secondary radiations emitted in thermal neutron-induced fission of U235. Ramanna and his coworkers measured the energy and angular distributions of prompt neutrons and gamma rays emitted by fission fragments. Such measurements provided important information on the times of these radiations, presence of scission neutrons, the average spin of the fission fragments and so on. The investigations carried out by Ramanna and his coworkers on light charged particle emission in fission induced by thermal and fast neutrons provided important insight on the mechanism of emission of these particles. The stochastic theory of fragment mass and charge distributions in fission is a unique contribution of Ramanna to fission theory. The theory, which was based on the model of a random exchange of nucleons between the two nascent fission fragments prior to scission, could explain most of the observed features of fragment mass and charge distribution in low energy fission and their dependence on the excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus. A geometrical interpretation of atomic and nuclear binding energies was another novel contribution of Ramanna and his group.

Ramanna's most important contribution was the creation of a vast pool of trained scientific manpower. Thus M. R. Srinivasan, a former Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, wrote: "The legacy of Ramanna is that over a half century of his association with atomic energy programme, he helped build up a large pool of scientists and technologists who could take on new and challenging problems in nuclear science and technology for national progress…" To develop the skilled manpower required for this task, the BARC (DAE) Training School was established in 1957 under the leadership of Ramanna. In his autobiography Ramanna wrote: "One aspect of the atomic energy programme that I had a lot to do with was the BARC Training Programme. It was imperative that well-trained scientists be involved in our programmes and as I've said earlier the universities had become rather ineffectual in imparting useful scientific education; again we did not want to deplete the universities of the few good teachers by recruiting directly. It seemed a somewhat obvious solution to utilize the services of the large number of trained instructors we already had to teach a small number of bright students. The interaction, it was felt, would not only benefit the students but also teachers who would be able to concentrate on a few, particularly when the handful had already proved their worth. It was these considerations that led to the creation of the BARC Training School in 1957. Apart from churning out scientists for the future, the school also helped greatly in stalling the emigration syndrome." The training school has proved to be remarkably successful. B. V. Sreekantan wrote: "…the (training) school has produced more than 6000 scientists and engineers who are manning various divisions of the Atomic Energy Establishment in different parts of the country. It is indeed remarkable that some of the older alumni of this school have achieved such distinction as becoming Chairman of Atomic Energy and Space Commissions, Adviser to the Ministry of Defence, Directors of several laboratories, Secretaries to Science Departments of Government of India, senior professors at institutions like TIFR; some have moved to industry and some have settled abroad in good positions…It would have made made a big difference if this successful model had been adopted in many other fields of scientific activity too."

Ramanna encouraged creativity at every level. He particularly encouraged the young scientists to take up challenging tasks. In Ramanna's schema of things there was no place for complacency or mediocrity. K. S. Parthasarathy, who had the opportunity to work with Ramanna, said: "During the Divisional Review Programme, he (Ramanna) started in BARC, the senior staff of every division presented their work. We attended them primarily to listen to Dr. Ramanna's delightful and erudite concluding remarks. He would cut the pretentious to size, compliment the deserving and point out areas for further study. His incisive analysis was a treat; his acidic tongue lashed at the mediocre. He hated "slide rule" engineering! He craved for originality and creativity."

Ramanna directly or indirectly helped to build up a number of institutions in the country. In the early 1980s he took the initiative for setting up a Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore, devoted to the development for advanced accelerators, lasers and other related technologies. He helped to establish the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (VEC) at Kolkata. He was the founder-Director of the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) at Bangalore established by JRD Tata. He was the Chairman, Board of Governors of the Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (1972-78); President of the Indian National Science Academy (1977-78); Member/Chairman, Scientific Advisory Committee to the Director General, International Atomic Energy Agency; President, 30th General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (1986).

Ramanna was associated with a number of science academies and learned bodies. He was Vice President, Indian Academy of Sciences (1977-79), President, Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi (1977-78); President, General Conference of Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1986). Among the various awards that he received included: Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Award (1963), Padma Vibhushan Award (1975), Meghnad Saha Medal of the Indian National Science Academy (1984), R. D. Memorial Award (1985-86), Asutosh Mookerjee Gold Medal (1996). He was awarded doctorate (honoris causa) by several universities.

Any write-up on Ramanna would not be complete without mentioning his love for music. He was not only an expert on music but he himself was an accomplished musician. He was drawn to music at an early age. To quote Ramanna: "My close association with Western music started with my changing schools when I was six years old. The old school, called the Dalvoy School, was an overcrowded cattle-shed and my parents realized that it would not sut me. I was shifted to the Good Shephered Convent which was located on the outskirts of Bangalore. The nuns of this convent had taught the members of the royal family and enjoyed a good reputation. Apart from that, the main advantage at this school was that they also taught European music. At home, there was now the general feeling that because there was enough appreciation of Carnatic music somebody should also study European music. It was decided eventually that I make the effort and so began my piano lessons at the new school at the ripe age of six. I guess the nuns at the convent must have been conscientious but I was not particularly attracted to any of them except for one outstanding lady, an Irish nun called Mother Maurice. She had been the music teacher to the Yuvaraja's son, Jaya Chamaraja, and all the princess of Mysore court. Philomena Thumboo Chetty, a distinguished violinist of the thirties, had also been her student. Mother Maurice was a sensitive teacher and was particularly good with young children. It was she who made music an indispensable part of life."

Krisnaraja Wadiyar, the then Maharaja of Mysore was a great admirer of young Ramanna's abilities in music. Ramanna valued this appreciation with gratitude. He wrote: "….I had the good fortune of coming to the attention of the Mysore Maharaja. An ardent music-lover, the Maharaja appreciated both Western and Indian music. His court was supported by a good orchestra under the conductor Otto Schmidt, a German. The Maharaja also patronized a host of Carnatic and Hindustani musicians, as was the tradition of the time. Word reached him, through various sources, that I could play the piano well and an audition was fixed for me at the Jaganmohan Palace in 1937.

On the day of the audition, the Maharaja listened intently to a new set pieces that I played for him. Later, he came up for a chat and asked whether my teachers were guiding me properly and whether they discriminated between me and the European children. I was touched, the Maharaja was genuine in the care he showed towards a twelve-year-old."

Ramanna died on 24th September, 2004 at Mumbai after a cardiac arrest. 

Ramanna is no more. We Indians must honour his memory. But then as P. K. Iyengar has pointed out, Ramanna's "more important legacy is his uncompromising belief in intellectual clarity and rational thinking in every facet of life, and his unwavering belief (which he inherited from Jawaharlal Nehru and Homi Bhabha) that the nation could progress only by embracing science and scientific thinking. The best way to honour his memory is not through eulogies, but by rededicating ourselves to his policies and belief."
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कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra : http://www.vivekanandakendra.org
Read n Get Articles, Magazines, Books @ http://prakashan.vivekanandakendra.org

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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Wednesday, 26 January 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : रानी गाइदिन्ल्यू

गाइन्दिल्यु का जन्म 26 जनवरी 1919 के दिन नुड्काओ गाँव के कबुई परिवार में हुआ | इनके पिता का नाम लोत्तनोहोड़ था और माता का नाम कलोतनेनल्यु था । बचपन में गाइन्द्ल्यु के वीरतापूर्ण कार्यो को देखकर गाँव की स्त्रियों को आश्चर्य होता था । उसका बचपन गाँव में सामान्य लडकियों जैसे ही बीता । बारह वर्ष की होने पर गाईदिल्यु को सपने में ज्डोनाद के पास जाने की देवी आज्ञा हुयी । उसको सपने में जदोनाद मन्दिर में पूजा करता हुआ दिखाई देता।

उस समय तक वह ज्ड़ोनाद के सामजिक एवं धार्मिक कार्यो के विषय में बहुत कुछ सुन चुकी थी। जदोंनाड यों तो चचेरा भाई था मगर काम्बीरोन में रहता था इसलिए कभी उसे देखा नही था। आखिर देवी प्रेरणा से वह काम्बीरोन गई । जदोनाड ने भी गाइन्दिल्यु को सपनों में देखा था। दोनों ने एक दुसरे को पहचान लिया। जदोंनाड ने भी बारह वर्ष की गाइन्दिल्यु की प्रतिभा को पहचान लिया। जब बारह वर्ष की बालिका जडोनाद के पास पहुची तब वह 22 वर्ष का था। जदोनाड उस समय तक अंग्रेजो को देश से निकालने का एवं पूर्ण स्वतन्त्रता प्राप्त करने का निश्चय कर चूका था। उसने गाइन्दिल्यु को सशस्त्र क्रान्ति के लिए कुबइ महिलाओं के प्रशिक्ष्ण  का काम सौंपा।

रानी गाइदिनल्यू का जन्म नंग्‍कओं, ग्राम रांगमई, मणिपुर में हुआ था। वह बचपन से ही बड़े स्वतंत्र और स्वाभिमानी स्वभाव की थीं। 13 वर्ष की आयु में वह नागा नेता जादोनाग के सम्पर्क में आईं। जादोनाग मणिपुर से अंग्रेज़ों को निकाल बाहर करने के प्रयत्न में लगे हुए थे। वे अपने आन्दोलन को क्रियात्मक रूप दे पाते, उससे पहले ही गिरफ्तार करके अंग्रेजों ने उन्हें 29 अगस्त, 1931 को फांसी पर लटका दिया।

अब स्वतंत्रता के लिए चल रहे आन्दोलन का नेतृत्व बालिका गाइदिनल्यू के हाथों में आ गया। उसने गांधी जी के आन्दोलन के बारे में सुनकर सरकार को किसी प्रकार का कर न देने की घोषणा की। उसने नागाओं के कबीलों में एकता स्थापित करके अंग्रेज़ों के विरुद्ध संयुक्त मोर्चा बनाने के लिए कदम उठाये। उसके तेजस्वी व्यक्तित्व और निर्भयता को देखकर जनजातीय लोग उसे सर्वशक्तिशाली देवी मानने लगे थे।

नेता जादोनाग को फांसी देने से लोगों में असंतोष व्याप्त था, गाइदिनल्यू ने उसे सही दिशा की ओर की मोड़ा। सोलह वर्ष की इस बालिका के साथ केवल चार हज़ार सशस्त्र नागा सिपाही थे। इन्हीं को लेकर भूमिगत गाइदिनल्यू ने अंग्रेज़ों की सेना का सामना किया। वह छापामार युद्ध और शस्त्र संचालन में अत्यन्त निपुण थी। अंग्रेज उन्हें बड़ी खूंखार नेता मानते थे। दूसरी ओर जनता का हर वर्ग उसे अपना उद्धारक समझता था।

जब सन 1946 में अंतरिम सरकार का गठन हुआ तब प्रधानमंत्री नेहरु के निर्देश पर रानी गाइदिनल्यू को तुरा जेल से रिहा कर दिया गया। अपनी रिहाई से पहले उन्होंने लगभग 14 साल विभिन्न जेलों में काटे थे। रिहाई के बाद वे अपने लोगों के उत्थान और विकास के लिए कार्य करती रहीं। सन 1972 में उन्हें 'ताम्रपत्र स्वतंत्रता सेनानी पुरस्कार', 1982 में पद्म भूषण और 1983 में 'विवेकानंद सेवा पुरस्कार' दिया गया। सन 1991 में वे अपने जन्म-स्थान लोंग्काओ लौट गयीं जहाँ 17 फरवरी 1993 को 78 साल की आयु में उनका निधन हो गया।

देश की आजादी और रानी गाइदिनल्यू की रिहाई :

जब सन 1946 में अंतरिम सरकार का गठन हुआ तब प्रधानमंत्री नेहरु के निर्देश पर रानी गाइदिनल्यू को तुरा जेल से रिहा कर दिया गया। अपनी रिहाई से पहले उन्होंने लगभग 14 साल विभिन्न जेलों में काटे थे। रिहाई के बाद वे अपने लोगों के उत्थान और विकास के लिए कार्य करती रहीं। सन 1953 में जब प्रधानमंत्री नेहरु इम्फाल गए तब वे उनसे मिलीं और रिहाई  के लिए कृतज्ञता प्रकट किया। बाद में वे ज़ेलिआन्ग्रोन्ग समुदाय के विकास और कल्याण से सम्बंधित बातचीत करने के लिए नेहरु से दिल्ली में भी मिलीं।

रानी गाइदिनल्यू नागा नेशनल कौंसिल (एन.एन.सी.) का विरोध करती थीं क्योंकि वे नागालैंड को भारत से अलग करने चाहते थे जबकि रानी ज़ेलिआन्ग्रोन्ग समुदाय के लिए भारत के अन्दर ही एक अलग क्षेत्र चाहती थीं। एन.एन.सी.उनका इस बात के लिए भी विरोध कर रहे थे क्योंकि वे परंपरागत नागा धर्म और रीति-रिवाजों को पुनर्जीवित करने का प्रयास भी कर रही थीं। नागा कबीलों की आपसी स्पर्धा के कारण रानी को अपने सहयोगियों के साथ 1960 में भूमिगत हो जाना पड़ा और भारत सरकार के साथ एक समझौते के बाद वे 6 साल बाद 1966 में बाहर आयीं।

परवरी 1966 में वे दिल्ली में तत्कालीन प्रधानमंत्री लालबहादुर शाष्त्री से मिलीं और एक पृथक ज़ेलिआन्ग्रोन्ग प्रशासनिक इकाई की मां की। इसके बाद उनके समर्थकों ने आत्म-समर्पण कर दिया जिनमें से कुछ को नागालैंड आर्म्ड पुलिस में भर्ती कर लिया गया। सन 1972 में उन्हें 'ताम्रपत्र स्वतंत्रता सेनानी पुरस्कार', 1982 में पद्म भूषण और 1983 में 'विवेकानंद सेवा पुरस्कार' दिया गया।

क्रांतिकारी जीवन :  जादोनाग के बाद अब स्वतंत्रता के लिए चल रहे आन्दोलन का नेतृत्व बालिका गाइदिनल्यू के हाथों में आ गया। उन्होंने महात्मा गाँधी के आन्दोलन के बारे में सुनकर ब्रिटिश सरकार को किसी भी प्रकार का कर न देने की घोषणा की। नागाओं के कबीलों में एकता स्थापित करके उन्होंने अंग्रेज़ों के विरुद्ध संयुक्त मोर्चा बनाने के लिए क़दम उठाये। उनके तेजस्वी व्यक्तित्व और निर्भयता को देखकर जन-जातीय लोग उन्हें सर्वशक्तिशाली देवी मानने लगे थे।

नेता जादोनाग को फ़ाँसी दे दिए जाने से भी लोगों में असंतोष व्याप्त था, गाइदिनल्यू ने उसे सही दिशा की ओर मोड़ा। सोलह वर्ष की इस बालिका के साथ केवल चार हज़ार सशस्त्र नागा सिपाही थे। इन्हीं को लेकर भूमिगत गाइदिनल्यू ने अंग्रेज़ों की फ़ौज का सामना किया। वह गुरिल्ला युद्ध और शस्त्र संचालन में अत्यन्त निपुण थीं। अंग्रेज़ उन्हें बड़ी खूंखार नेता मानते थे। दूसरी ओर जनता का हर वर्ग उन्हें अपना उद्धारक समझता था।

गिरफ़्तारी :  रानी द्वारा चलाये जा रहे आन्दोलन को दबाने के लिए अंग्रेज़ों ने वहाँ के कई गांव जलाकर राख कर दिए। पर इससे लोगों का उत्साह कम नहीं हुआ। सशस्त्र नागाओं ने एक दिन खुलेआम 'असम राइफल्स' की सरकारी चौकी पर हमला कर दिया। स्थान बदलते, अंग्रेज़ों की सेना पर छापामार प्रहार करते हुए गाइदिनल्यू ने एक इतना बड़ा क़िला बनाने का निश्चय किया, जिसमें उनके चार हज़ार नागा साथी रह सकें। इस पर काम चल ही रहा था कि 17 अप्रैल, 1932 को अंग्रेज़ों की सेना ने अचानक आक्रमण कर दिया। गाइदिनल्यू गिरफ़्तार कर ली गईं। उन पर मुकदमा चला और कारावास की सज़ा हुई। उन्होंने चौदह वर्ष जेल में बिताए।




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कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra : http://www.vivekanandakendra.org
Read n Get Articles, Magazines, Books @ http://prakashan.vivekanandakendra.org

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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Monday, 24 January 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : Bhavani Bharati - 49



Devanāgarī

समाकुलं भाविभिरास्यवर्यैर्ब्रह्माणमद्राक्षमथाभ्ररूपम्।
सहस्रमक्षीणि ददर्श तस्मिन् प्रतीक्षमाणान्यभयं जनन्याः॥

Anvaya

अथ भाविभिः आस्यवर्यैः समाकुलम् अभ्ररूपं ब्रह्माणम् अद्राक्षम् । तस्मिन् जनन्याः अभयं प्रतीक्षमाणानि सहस्रम् अक्षीणि ददर्श ।

Meaning

अथ - atha - then; भाविभिः - bhaavibhiH - by glorious faces from the future; समाकुलम् - samaakulam - surrounded; अभ्ररूपं - abhraruupaM - śape of a cloud; ब्रह्माणम् - brahmaaNam - rahma; अद्राक्षम् - adraaxam - ī sav; तस्मिन् - tasmin - in that; जनन्याः - jananyaaH - the ṁothers; अभयं - abhayaM - fearlessness; प्रतीक्षमाणानि - pratiixamaaNaani - vatced on;

Sanskrit

अनन्तरं भाविवराननैः विमण्डितः ब्रह्मा मेघरूपेण दृZटिगोचरः अभवत् । तस्मिन् जनन्याः अभयं प्रार्थयमानानि सहस्रं नेत्राणि अपश्यम् ।

English Interpretation

Crowded with glorious faces of the future, I beheld now the creator Brahma in the shape of a cloud whence looked forth a thousand eyes that foresaw the Mother's deliverance from fear.

Hindi

ब्रह्मा को देखा मैंने तब मेघरूप में
जो भविष्य के उज्ज्वल मुखमंडल से दमक रहे थे,
थीं हजार आँखें उनकी
जो आतुर थीं पाने को माँ से अभयदान॥



--
कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra : http://www.vivekanandakendra.org
Read n Get Articles, Magazines, Books @ http://prakashan.vivekanandakendra.org

Let's work on "Swamiji's Vision - Eknathji's Mission"

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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Sunday, 23 January 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : Bhavani Bharati - 48



Devanāgarī
तदा तमिस्रामपसारयन्तं रक्तप्रकाशं दिवि बालसूर्यम्। शरोपमैर्घ्नन्तमिवांशुभिस्तं प्रीतो ददर्शहमुदग्ररशिमम्॥

Anvaya
तदा अहं प्रीतः दिवि तमिस्राम् अपसारयन्तम् रक्तप्रकाशम्उदग्ररश्मिं बालसूर्यं शरोपमैः अंशुभिः तं घ्नन्तम् इव ददर्श ।

Meaning
तदा - tadaa - then; अहं - ahaM - ī; प्रीतः - priitaH - delighted; दिवि - divi - in the sky; तमिस्राम् - tamisraam - darkness; अपसारयन्तम् - apasaarayantam - repelling; रक्तप्रकाशम् - raktaprakaasham - crimson; उदग्ररश्मिं - udagrarashmiM - its rays aloft; बालसूर्यं - baalasuuryaM - a rising sun; शरोपमैः - sharopamaiH - like arrovs; अंशुभिः - aMshubhiH - vith beams; तं - taM - him; घ्नन्तम् - ghnantam - piercing; इव - iva - like; ददर्श - dadarsha - sav;

Sanskrit
तदा अन्धकारं दूरयन्तम् रक्ताभम् उत्क्षिप्तकिरणवर्इणम् उदयन्तं सूर्यम् आकाशे अपश्यम् । सः बाणतुल्यैः किरणैः तं दानवं जर्जरयति स्म । एतत् दृट्वा अहम् अतीव प्रीतः अभवम् ।

English Interpretation
Then, repelling the darkness and piercing the adversary with beams like arrows, I saw with a thrill of gladness a rising sun that shed a ruddy glow in the heavens, casting its rays aloft.

Hindi

तभी गगन में मैंने देखा नन्हा सूरज,
लाल उजाला फूट रहा था उसके तन से,
चीर रहा था रश्मिशरों से अंधकार को,
उस उगते सूरज को मैंने जीभर देखा॥

--
कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra : http://www.vivekanandakendra.org
Read n Get Articles, Magazines, Books @ http://prakashan.vivekanandakendra.org

Let's work on "Swamiji's Vision - Eknathji's Mission"

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मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Saturday, 22 January 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : स्वतंत्र संग्राम के कुछ अनछुए पन्ने - अजीजन बाई

अजीजन बाई: एक गणिका जिसने 1857 के संग्राम में अंग्रेजों के छक्के छुड़ा दिए

भारत की आज़ादी की लड़ाई में हिस्सा लेने वालों में सिर्फ पुरूष ही नहीं, महिलाएं भी शामिल थीं। इनमें जहां एक ओर कुलीन परिवारों की संभ्रांत महिलाएं थीं, वहीं दूसरी ओर गणिका व नृर्तकियां भी इसमें पीछे नहीं रहीं। ऐसा ही एक प्रमुख नाम है अजीजन बाई. अजीजन बाई वैसे तो पेशे से एक गणिका थीं, लेकिन उन्होंने 1857 के स्वतंत्रता संग्राम में बढ़-चढ़कर हिस्सा लिया और अपने जुनून तथा देश के लिए मर मिटने की भावना के चलते अंग्रजों को लोहे के चने चबाने पर मजबूर कर दिया था।

अजीजन बाई का जन्म 22 जनवरी सन 1824 को मध्य प्रदेश के मालवा राज्य के राजगढ़ में हुआ था। उनके पिता शमशेर सिंह एक ज़ागीरदार थे।

अजीजन का मूल नाम अंजुला था। एक दिन वे अपनी सहेलियों के साथ मेला घूमने गयी थीं। वहां पर अचानक एक अंग्रेज़ टुकड़ी ने हमला कर दिया और उन्हें अगवा कर लिया। अंजुला को लेकर जब अंग्रेज सिपाही नदी पर बने पुल से गुजर रहे थे, तो उसी वक्त जान बचाने के लिए अंजुला नदी में कूद गयीं।

जब अंग्रेज वहां से चले गये, तो एक पहलवान ने नदी में कूद कर अंजुला की जान बचाई। वह पहलवान कानपुर के एक चकलाघर के लिए काम करता था। उसने अंजुला को ले जाकर वहां बेच दिया। इस प्रकार अंजुला का नाम बदल कर अजीजन बाई हो गया और उन्हें गणिका की ट्रेनिंग दी जाने लगी।
 
कुछ ही समय में अजीजन बाई अपनी खूबसूरती और नृत्य के लिए दूर दूर तक प्रसिद्ध हो गयीं। वे कानपुर के मूलगंज इलाके में रहती थीं। वहां पर उनका मुजरा सुनने के लिए अंग्रेज अफसर भी आया करते थे। यह बात 1857 के प्रसिद्ध क्रांतिकारी तात्या टोपे को पता चली, तो उन्होंने अपने साथियों के साथ अंग्रेजों पर हमला कर दिया। तात्या टोपे को देखकर अंग्रेज अफसर वहां से भाग खड़े हुए।

तात्या टोपे ने अजीजनबाई होलिका दहन पर बिठूर आने का न्योता दिया। अजीजनबाई ने उनका आमंत्रण स्वीकार कर लिया। उन्होंने होलिका दहन के दिन अपने नृत्य से सभी का दिल जीत जिया। तात्या जब उन्हें इनाम में पैसे देने लगे, तो अजीजन बोलीं कि अगर कुछ देना है, तो अपनी सेना की वर्दी दे दें। यह सुनकर तात्या टोपे प्रसन्न हो गये और उन्हें मुखबिर के रूप में अजीजन को अपनी टोली में शामिल कर लिया।

अजीजन बाई ने होली मिलन के रूप में मूलगंज में एक स्पेशल नृत्य कार्यक्रम किया, जिसमें सिर्फ अंग्रेज अफसरों को ही बुलाया। लेकिन वहां पर क्रांतिकारी पहले से ही घात लगाए बैठे थे। अंग्रेजों के आते ही उन्होंने धावा बोल दिया और उन्हें मौत के घाट सुला दिया।

नाना साहब को जब अजीजन बाई के बारे में पता चला, तो वे बहुत प्रसन्न हुए। उन्होंने अजीजन से राखी बंधवा कर उन्हें अपनी धर्म बहन बना लिया। इससे अजीजन बाई नाना साहब से बहुत प्रभावित हुईं। उन्होंने अपनी सारी संपत्ति आज़ादी की लड़ाई के लिए नाना साहब को दान कर दी।

अजीजन बाई ने अपनी साथी तवायफों के साथ मिलकर 'मस्तानी टोली' बनाई और उन्हें युद्ध कला का प्रशिक्षण दिया। यह टोली दिन में वेष बदल कर अंग्रेजों से मोर्चा लेती थी और रात में छावनी में मुज़रा करके वहां से गुप्त सूचनाएं एकत्र करके नाना साहब तक पहुंचाती थी। इसके अलावा युद्ध में घायल सैनिकों की सेवा तथा रसद आदि पहुंचाने का काम भी वे लोग करती थीं।

अजीजन की प्रेरणा से अंग्रेजी फौज के हजारों सिपाही विद्रोही सेना में शामिल हुए। उनकी मदद से नाना साहेब ने कानुपर से अंग्रेजों को उखाड़ फेंका और 8 जुलाई 1857 को वे वहां के स्वतंत्र पेशवा घोषित कर दिये गये।

पर 17 जुलाई को जनरल हैवलाक बड़ी सेना लेकर कानपुर पहुँच गया। उसने कुछ विश्वासघातियों की मदद से जीती बाजी पलट दी। नाना साहब वहां से बच कर निकलने में कामयाब हो गये, पर अजीजन अंग्रेजों की गिरफ्त में आ गयीं।

जनरल हैवलाक ने कहा कि यदि वह माफी मांग लें और साथी क्रांतिकारियों का पता बता दें, तो उन्हें छोड़ दिया जाएगा। पर अजीजन ने इससे सख्ती से इनकार कर दिया।

इससे क्रुद्ध होकर हैवलाक ने अजीजन को गोलियों से भून देने का हुक्म जारी कर दिया। यह सुनकर भी अजीन के चेहर पर एक शिकन तक नहीं आई और वह देश की खातिर हंसते हुए कुर्बान हो गयीं।
--
कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra : http://www.vivekanandakendra.org
Read n Get Articles, Magazines, Books @ http://prakashan.vivekanandakendra.org



Let's work on "Swamiji's Vision - Eknathji's Mission"

Follow Vivekananda Kendra on   blog   twitter   g+   facebook   rss   delicious   youtube   Donate Online

मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26

Friday, 21 January 2022

Swaraj Amrit Mahotsav : Bhavani Bharati - 47



Devanāgarī

भीमो रजन्यामसुरो बलीयान् ममर्द सैन्यानि सुरप्रियाणाम्।
जगर्ज चोन्मत्तमनाः सुरारिः को मे समः पुंस्विति रूढगर्वः॥

Anvaya

रजन्यां भीमः बलीयान् असुरः सुरप्रियाणां सैन्यानि ममर्द पुंसु कः मे समः इति रूढगर्वः उन्मत्तमना च सुरारिः जगर्ज ।

Meaning

रजन्यां - rajanyaaM - at night; भीमः - bhiimaH - mighty; बलीयान् - baliiyaan - terrible; असुरः - asuraH - ḍemon; सुरप्रियाणां - surapriyaaNaaM - beloved of the gods; सैन्यानि - sainyaani - armies; ममर्द - mamarda - cruśed; पुंसु - puMsu - in the vorld; कः - kaH - vho; मे - me - to me; समः - samaH - equal; इति - iti - (indicating speec); रूढगर्वः - ruuDhagarvaH - grovn in ego; उन्मत्तमना - unmattamanaa - intokṣicated vith pride; - ca - and; सुरारिः - suraariH - enemy of the gods; जगर्ज - jagarja - roared;

Sanskrit

रात्रौ भयङ्करः बलशाली असुरः देवप्रियभारतपुत्राणां सैन्यानि अमर्दयत् । नरेZउ कः मत्समः बलवान् स्यात् इति गर्वोद्धतः उन्मत्तचित्तः देवद्रोही सः अगर्जत्

English Interpretation

The mighty Titan, terrible in the night, was crushing the armies of the people beloved of the gods. Intoxicated with pride, the enemy of the gods thundered, "Who is there in the world who is equal to me?"47

Hindi

देवानांप्रिय भारतपुत्रों की सेना को
रौंद रहा था असुर भयंकर बलशाली वह अंधियारे में,
देवों का उन्मत्त शत्रु वह चिल्लाया अत्यंत गर्व से-
"कौन पुरुष मेरे समान विक्रमशाली?"॥



--
कथा : विवेकानन्द केन्द्र { Katha : Vivekananda Kendra }
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra : http://www.vivekanandakendra.org
Read n Get Articles, Magazines, Books @ http://prakashan.vivekanandakendra.org

Let's work on "Swamiji's Vision - Eknathji's Mission"

Follow Vivekananda Kendra on   blog   twitter   g+   facebook   rss   delicious   youtube   Donate Online

मुक्तसंग्ङोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वित:।
सिद्ध‌‌यसिद्धयोर्निर्विकार: कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८.२६॥

Freed from attachment, non-egoistic, endowed with courage and enthusiasm and unperturbed by success or failure, the worker is known as a pure (Sattvika) one. Four outstanding and essential qualities of a worker. - Bhagwad Gita : XVIII-26