Wednesday 18 November 2020

Homage to Batukeshwar Dutt

The Unsung Braveheart Who Launched Smoke Bombs Alongside Bhagat Singh

"At the appointed time, Bhagat Singh and BK Dutta threw the bombs over the empty seats in the Central Assembly, threw the historic pamphlets 'To Make the Deaf Hear' and shouted slogans: 'Inquilab Zindabad' and 'Samrajyavaad ka naash ho'."

On 8 April 1929, members of the Central Legislative Assembly had gathered together and begun their regular discussions, when suddenly, a strange object flew from the visitor's gallery and landed in an empty space in the hall. Within moments, smoke started filling the area and shouts of "Inquilab Zindabad" (long live the revolution) were heard. Following this, the two men who had bombed the hall began to throw leaflets that carried the slogan, "It takes a loud sound to make the deaf hear."

Given the scare that the bomb had created, members of the assembly were running helter-skelter. The bombers, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt, could have easily escaped in the commotion, but they stayed—the bomb wasn't an empty threat. They wanted to make their voices heard.

Batukeshwar Dutt, fondly known as BK Dutt, Mohan or Battu was born on 18 November 1910 in the Oari village in what is now West Bengal.

He shifted to Kanpur to study in the PPN High school, from where he graduated. In 1924, Dutt met Bhagat Singh, and the two became thick friends. Bhagat Singh was an active member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) when he met Dutt, and soon, the latter joined the force too. Like Singh and Chandrashekhar Azad, Dutt learned how to make bombs during this time.

When the British Government passed the Defence of India Act, 1915, it gave them the undisputed power to control revolutionaries and their activities. HSRA declared their staunch opposition to the act, and Lala Lajpat Rai's death in a lathi charge further infuriated the association.

In the book, 'The Jail Notebook and Other Writings" compiled by Chaman Lal, he writes,

"It was clear from the beginning that these bombs were to be harmless, not designed to kill or injure anyone, but to create an explosion that would make the deaf hear… At the appointed time, Bhagat Singh and BK Dutta threw the bombs over the empty seats in the Central Assembly, threw the historic pamphlets 'To Make the Deaf Hear' and shouted slogans: 'Inquilab Zindabad' and 'Samrajyavaad ka naash ho' (down with imperialism)."

Singh and Dutt never wanted to escape. They readily accepted imprisonment, as they believed that it would inspire the next generation of revolutionaries to fight for the cause of freedom.

In fact, several years later, Asaf Ali, the lawyer who represented Dutt in the bombing case, revealed in an interview that Dutt had not actually thrown a bomb that day. He wanted to stay with Singh from the beginning to the end, so he allowed himself to be arrested.

Both the revolutionaries were sentenced for transportation for life (convicts were deported from mainland India for the remainder of their lives) in this case for "causing explosions of a nature likely to endanger life, unlawfully and maliciously." Singh was sent to the Mianwali Jail and Dutt, to the Central Jail in Lahore. Soon, Singh was transferred to the same jail that Dutt was in.

Here, they realised that they were treated like criminals, not political prisoners. Their European counterparts were treated with dignity and were provided with good food, clothes, books and newspapers. On the other hand, Indian political prisoners were made to perform undignified labour.

Furious with the treatment being meted out to them, they wrote an impassioned letter to the government of India, stating, stating that their diet needed to be better, and of the same standard as that of European prisoners. They also demanded that they be given "at least one standard daily paper, and "all books, other than those proscribed, along with writing materials, without any restriction."

The two revolutionaries sat on a legendary hunger strike to demand these rights from the British authorities and succeeded in securing some of them.

Many political prisoners were released by the British before they served their sentence if that meant appeasing the public. While Singh was hanged to death for shooting British officer John Saunders, Dutt was released from jail a few years later. He was in the Kalapani cellular jail in Andaman when he was released and had unfortunately contracted tuberculosis.

As soon as he was released, Dutt joined the Quit India movement initiated by Mahatma Gandhi. This earned him jail time, once again.

Five years later, India finally achieved independence from colonial rule. Even as several freedom fighters were honoured across the country, Dutt did not get his due, even though there was clear evidence of his involvement in the struggle.

Forced to live in dire poverty and without a government job, Dutt passed away in the AIIMS hospital in Delhi in 1965 and was cremated at the same spot where his comrades, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were cremated several years ago.

Somewhere between the legendary bombing incident and India finally achieving its dream of independence, Dutt's story got lost.

A friend so loyal that he told a lie which sent him to prison, and a revolutionary so fierce that he participated in the freedom movement even when he had contracted a dreaded disease, BK Dutt undoubtedly deserves greater respect and recognition.

courtesy : thebetterindia (Edited by Gayatri Mishra)

Monday 16 November 2020

बिरसा मुंडा : जिनके उलगुलान और बलिदान ने उन्हें 'भगवान' बना दिया

let New India arise in your place. Let her arise — out of the peasants' cottage, grasping the plough; out of the huts of the fisherman, the cobbler, and the sweeper. Let her spring from the grocer's shop, from beside the oven of the fritter-seller. Let her emanate from the factory, from marts, and from markets. Let her emerge from groves and forests, from hills and mountains. These common people have suffered oppression for thousands of years — suffered it without murmur, and as a result have got wonderful fortitude. They have suffered eternal misery, which has given them unflinching vitality. Living on a handful of grain, they can convulse the world; give them only half a piece of bread, and the whole world will not be big enough to contain their energy; they are endowed with the inexhaustible vitality of a Raktabija. (A demon, in the Durgâ-Saptashati, every drop of whose blood falling on the ground produced another demon like him.) And, besides, they have got the wonderful strength that comes of a pure and moral life, which is not to be found anywhere else in the world. Such peacefulness, such contentment, such love, such power of silent and incessant work, and such manifestation of lion's strength in times of action — where else will you find these! Skeletons of the Past, there, before you, are your successors, the India that is to be. Throw those treasure-chests of yours and those jewelled rings among them, as soon as you can; and you vanish into the air, and be seen no more — only keep your ears open. No sooner will you disappear than you will hear the inaugural shout of Renaissant India, ringing with the voice of a million thunders and reverberating throughout the universe, "Wah Guru Ki Fateh" — victory to the Guru!
--  Swami Vivekananda

महान उपन्यासकार महाश्वेता देवी के उपन्यास 'जंगल के दावेदार' का एक अंश :

सवेरे आठ बजे बिरसा मुंडा खून की उलटी कर, अचेत हो गया. बिरसा मुंडा- सुगना मुंडा का बेटा; उम्र पच्चीस वर्ष-विचाराधीन बंदी. तीसरी फ़रवरी को बिरसा पकड़ा गया था, किन्तु उस मास के अंतिम सप्ताह तक बिरसा और अन्य मुंडाओं के विरुद्ध केस तैयार नहीं हुआ था....,' डॉक्टर को बुलाया गया उसने मुंडा की नाड़ी देखी. वो बंद हो चुकी थी। बिरसा मुंडा नहीं मरा था, आदिवासी मुंडाओं का 'भगवान' मर चुका था।

आदिवासियों का संघर्ष अट्ठारहवीं शताब्दी से चला आ रहा है। 1766 के पहाड़िया-विद्रोह से लेकर 1857 के ग़दर के बाद भी आदिवासी संघर्षरत रहे। सन 1895 से 1900 तक बीरसा या बिरसा मुंडा का महाविद्रोह 'ऊलगुलान' चला। आदिवासियों को लगातार जल-जंगल-ज़मीन और उनके प्राकृतिक संसाधनों से बेदखल किया जाता रहा और वे इसके खिलाफ आवाज उठाते रहे।

बिरसा मुंडा का जन्म 15 नवंबर 1875 को बंगाल प्रेसीडेंसी, उलीहातू, रांची जिला, बिहार में हुआ था। यह स्थान अब झारखंड के खुंटी जिले में आता है। मुंडा एक भारतीय आदिवासी स्वतंत्रता सेनानी, धार्मिक नेता और लोक नायक थे, जो मुंडा जनजाति से ताल्लुक रखते थे। उन्होंने 19वीं सदी के अंत में बंगाल प्रेसीडेंसी (अब झारखंड) में ब्रिटिश राज के दौरान हुए एक आदिवासी धार्मिक आंदोलन की अगुवाई की थी। इसने उन्हें भारतीय स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन के इतिहास में एक महत्वपूर्ण व्यक्ति बना दिया। यह आंदोलन मुख्य रूप से खूंटी, तामार, सरवाड़ा और बंदगांव के मुंडा बेल्ट में केंद्रित था। उनकी तस्वीर भारतीय संसद के संग्रहालय में मौजूद है। भारत सरकार ने 1988 में उनके सम्मान में एक डाट टिकट भी जारी किया था।

2० साल की उम्र में 1895 में बिरसा ने अंग्रेजों की लागू की गयी ज़मींदारी प्रथा और राजस्व-व्यवस्था के ख़िलाफ़ लड़ाई के साथ-साथ जंगल-ज़मीन की लड़ाई छेड़ी थी। बिरसा ने सूदखोर महाजनों के ख़िलाफ़ भी जंग का ऐलान किया। ये महाजन, जिन्हें वे दिकू कहते थे, क़र्ज़ के बदले उनकी ज़मीन पर कब्ज़ा कर लेते थे। यह मात्र विद्रोह नहीं था. यह आदिवासी अस्मिता, स्वायतत्ता और संस्कृति को बचाने के लिए संग्राम था।

बिरसा मुंडा को उनके पिता ने मिशनरी स्कूल में भर्ती किया था जहां उन्हें ईसाइयत का पाठ पढ़ाया गया। कहा जाता है कि बिरसा ने कुछ ही दिनों में यह कहकर कि 'साहेब साहेब एक टोपी है' स्कूल से नाता तोड़ लिया। 1890 के आसपास बिरसा वैष्णव संप्रदाय की ओर मुड गए। जो आदिवासी किसी महामारी को दैवीय प्रकोप मानते थी उनको वे महामारी से बचने के उपाय समझाते। मुंडा आदिवासी हैजा, चेचक, सांप के काटने बाघ के खाए जाने को ईश्वर की मर्ज़ी मानते, बिरसा उन्हें सिखाते कि चेचक-हैजा से कैसे लड़ा जाता है। बिरसा अब धरती आबा यानी धरती पिता हो गए थे।

धीरे-धीरे बिरसा का ध्यान मुंडा समुदाय की ग़रीबी की ओर गया। आज की तरह ही आदिवासियों का जीवन तब भी अभावों से भरा हुआ था। न खाने को भात था न पहनने को कपड़े. एक तरफ ग़रीबी थी और दूसरी तरफ 'इंडियन फारेस्ट एक्ट' 1882 ने उनके जंगल छीन लिए थे। जो जंगल के दावेदार थे, वही जंगलों से बेदख़ल कर दिए गए। यह देख बिरसा ने हथियार उठा लिए. उलगुलान शुरू हो गया था।
अपनों का धोखा

संख्या और संसाधन कम होने की वजह से बिरसा ने छापामार लड़ाई का सहारा लिया। रांची और उसके आसपास के इलाकों में पुलिस उनसे आतंकित थी। अंग्रेजों ने उन्हें पकड़वाने के लिए पांच सौ रुपये का इनाम रखा था जो उस समय बहुत बड़ी रकम थी। बिरसा मुंडा और अंग्रेजों के बीच अंतिम और निर्णायक लड़ाई 1900 में रांची के पास दूम्बरी पहाड़ी पर हुई। हज़ारों की संख्या में मुंडा आदिवासी बिरसा के नेतृत्व में लड़े। पर तीर-कमान और भाले कब तक बंदूकों और तोपों का सामना करते? लोग बेरहमी से मार दिए गए। 25 जनवरी, 1900 में स्टेट्समैन अखबार के मुताबिक इस लड़ाई में 400 लोग मारे गए थे।

अंग्रेज़ जीते तो सही पर बिरसा मुंडा हाथ नहीं आए।

हालात तो आज भी नहीं बदले हैं। आदिवासी गांवों से खदेड़े जा रहे हैं, दिकू अब भी हैं. जंगलों के संसाधन तब भी असली दावेदारों के नहीं थे और न ही अब हैं। आदिवासियों की समस्याएं नहीं बल्कि वे ही खत्म होते जा रहे हैं। सब कुछ वही है। जो नहीं है तो आदिवासियों के 'भगवान' बिरसा मुंडा।

ऐसे में कवि भुजंग मेश्राम की पंक्तियां याद आती हैं :

' बिरसा तुम्हें कहीं से भी आना होगा
घास काटती दराती हो या लकड़ी काटती कुल्हाड़ी
यहां-वहां से, पूरब-पश्चिम, उत्तर दक्षिण से
कहीं से भी आ मेरे बिरसा
खेतों की बयार बनकर
लोग तेरी बाट जोहते.'

15 नवंबर, झारखंड  अपना 20वां स्थापना दिवस मना रहा है। 15 नवंबर, 2000 को बिहार से अलग होकर इस राज्य की स्थापना हुई थी। इस मौके पर प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी जी ने राज्य के लोगों को अपनी शुभकामनाएं दी हैं। साथ ही बिरसा मुंडा की जयंती पर उन्हें नमन भी किया है।

प्रधानमंत्री मोदी ने आदिवासी नेता और स्वतंत्रता सेनानी बिरसा मुंडा को उनकी जयंती पर नमन किया है। प्रधानमंत्री ने लिखा, 'भगवान बिरसा मुंडा जी को उनकी जयंती पर शत-शत नमन। वे गरीबों के सच्चे मसीहा थे, जिन्होंने शोषित और वंचित वर्ग के कल्याण के लिए जीवनपर्यंत संघर्ष किया। स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन में उनका योगदान और सामाजिक सद्भावना के लिए किए गए उनके प्रयास देशवासियों को सदैव प्रेरित करते रहेंगे।'

The main theme of my life is to take the message of Sanatana Dharma to every home and pave the way for launching, in a big way, the man-making programme preached and envisaged by great seers like Swami Vivekananda. - Mananeeya Eknathji

विवेकानन्द केन्द्र कन्याकुमारी (Vivekananda Kendra Kanyakumari)
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Thursday 12 November 2020

Homage to Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya

The Honorable Prime Minister of India Shri Narendrabhai Modi Ji paid tribute to Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya on his 158th birth anniversary (25th December, 2019).

Born on 25th December 1861, in Allahabad (now Prayagraj) in Uttar Pradesh, Malviya played a key role in the Indian independence struggle against British rule and founded the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) in 1916.
  • He is also remembered for his role in ending the Indian indenture system, especially in the Caribbean.
    • Indentured labour was a system of bonded labour that was instituted following the abolition of slavery in 1833.
    • Indentured labour were recruited to work on sugar, cotton and tea plantations, and rail construction projects in British colonies in West Indies, Africa and South East Asia.
  • He popularized the term 'Satyamev Jayate'. However, the phrase originally belongs to the Mundaka Upanishad. The term now is the national motto of India.
  • He was given the title of 'Mahamana' by Rabindranath Tagore and the second President of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan gave him the status of a 'Karmayogi'.
  • Devnagri was introduced in the British-Indian courts because of Malviya's efforts with the British government. This is still considered as one of his greatest achievements.
  • Madan Mohan Malviya was expelled from the Brahmin community for expressing his views on caste discrimination and Brahmanical patriarchy. He worked immensely for Hindu-Muslim unity. He is known to have given famous speeches on communal harmony.
  • He helped establish the Hindu Mahasabha ("Great Society of Hindus") in 1906, which brought diverse local Hindu nationalist movements together.
  • Malaviya's consciousness toward the public led to the launch of his own Hindi-language weekly, the Abhyudaya (1907); the Leader of Allahabad, an English-language daily (1909); and the Hindi monthly the Maryada (1910). He also served as the chairman of the board of Hindustan times and facilitated the launch of its Hindi edition.
  • He died on 12th November, 1946, at the age of 84.
  • In 2014, he was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, the country's highest civilian award.

Monday 9 November 2020

कनाईलाल दत्त को श्रध्धानजली

आज़ादी के लिए महज़ 20 साल की उम्र में फांसी के फंदे पर झूल गए कनाईलाल दत्त

भारत की आज़ादी के लिए अपने प्राणों का बलिदान करने वाले वीर क्रांतिकारी शहीदों में से एक थे कनाईलाल दत्त जो कि आज़ादी के लिए फांसी के फंदे पर झूल गए थे। इन्होंने 1905 में बंगाल के विभाजन का पूर्ण विरोध किया और क्रांतिकारी बारीन्द्र कुमार के दल में शामिल हो गए। इनके दल का एक युवक नरेन गोस्वामी अंग्रेज़ों का सरकारी मुखबिर बन गया। क्रांतिकारियों ने इससे बदला लेने का निश्चय कर लिया और अपना यह कार्य पूर्ण करने के बाद ही कनाईलाल पकड़े गए और उन्हें फांसी दे दी गई।.. आइए एक बार फिर याद करते हैं इस वीर क्रांतिकारी की शहादत को जो कहीं ईतिहास के पन्नों में खो गया।

कनाईलाल दत्त का जन्म 30 अगस्त, 1888 ई. को ब्रिटिश कालीन बंगाल के हुगली ज़िले में चंद्रनगर में हुआ था। उनके पिता चुन्नीलाल दत्त ब्रिटिश भारत सरकार की सेवा में मुंबई में नियुक्त थे। पांच वर्ष की उम्र में कनाईलाल मुंबई आ गए और वहीं उनकी आरम्भिक शिक्षा हुई। बाद में वापस चंद्रनगर जाकर उन्होंने हुगली कॉलेज से स्नातक की परीक्षा उत्तीर्ण की। लेकिन उनकी राजनीतिक गतिविधियों के कारण ब्रिटिश सरकार ने उनकी डिग्री रोक ली।

अपने विद्यार्थी जीवन में कनाईलाल दत्त प्रोफेसर चारुचंद्र राय के प्रभाव में आए। प्रोफेसर राय ने चंद्रनगर में 'युगांतर पार्टी' की स्थापना की थी। कुछ अन्य क्रान्तिकारियों से भी उनका सम्पर्क हुआ जिनकी सहायता से उन्होंने गोली का निशाना साधना सीखा। 1905 ई. के 'बंगाल विभाजन' विरोधी आन्दोलन में कनाईलाल ने आगे बढ़कर भाग लिया तथा वे इस आन्दोलन के नेता सुरेन्द्रनाथ बनर्जी के भी सम्पर्क में आये।

बी.ए. की परीक्षा समाप्त होते ही कनाईलाल कोलकाता चले गए और प्रसिद्ध क्रान्तिकारी बारीन्द्र कुमार घोष के दल में सम्मिलित हो गए। यहां वे उसी मकान में रहते थे जहां क्रान्तिकारियों के लिए अस्त्र-शस्त्र और बम आदि रखे जाते थे। अप्रैल, 1908 ई. में खुदीराम बोस और प्रफुल्ल चाकी ने मुज़फ्फरपुर में किंग्सफ़ोर्ड पर आक्रमण किया। इसी सिलसिले में 2 मई, 1908 को कनाईलाल दत्त, अरविन्द घोष, बारीन्द्र कुमार आदि गिरफ्तार कर लिये गए। इस मुकदमे में नरेन गोस्वामी नाम का एक अभियुक्त सरकारी मुखबिर बन गया। योज़ना के तहत क्रान्तिकारियों ने इस मुखबिर से बदला लेने के लिए मुलाकात के समय चुपचाप बाहर से रिवाल्वर मंगाए। कनाईलाल दत्त और उनके एक साथी सत्येन बोस ने नरेन गोस्वामी को जेल के अंदर ही अपनी गोलियों का निशाना बनाने का निश्चय किया। पहले सत्येन बीमार बनकर जेल के अस्पताल में भर्ती हुए, फिर कनाईलाल भी बीमार पड़ गये। सत्येन ने मुखबिर नरेन गोस्वामी के पास संदेश भेजा कि मैं जेल के जीवन से ऊब गया हूं और तुम्हारी ही तरह सरकारी गवाह बनना चाहता हूं। मेरा एक और साथी हो गया इस प्रसन्नता से वह सत्येन से मिलने जेल के अस्पताल जा पहुंचा। फिर क्या था, उसे देखते ही सत्येन और कनाईलाल दत्त ने उसे गोलियों से वहीं ढेर कर दिया। दोनों पकड़ लिये गए और दोनों को मृत्युदंड मिला।

कनाईलाल के फैसले में लिखा गया कि इसे अपील करने की इजाज़त नहीं होगी। 10 नवम्बर, 1908 को कनाईलाल कलकत्ता (कोलकाता) में फांसी के फंदे पर झूलकर शहीद हो गए। मात्र बीस वर्ष की आयु में ही शहीद हो जाने वाले कनाईलाल दत्त की शहादत को भारत में कभी भुलाया नहीं जा सकेगा।


The main theme of my life is to take the message of Sanatana Dharma to every home and pave the way for launching, in a big way, the man-making programme preached and envisaged by great seers like Swami Vivekananda. - Mananeeya Eknathji

विवेकानन्द केन्द्र कन्याकुमारी (Vivekananda Kendra Kanyakumari)
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra :
Read Article, Magazine, Book @
Cell : +91-941-801-5995, Landline : +91-177-283-5995

. . . Are you Strong? Do you feel Strength? — for I know it is Truth alone that gives Strength. Strength is the medicine for the world's disease . . .
This is the great fact: "Strength is LIFE; Weakness is Death."
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Tuesday 3 November 2020

मेजर सोमनाथ शर्मा को श्रध्धानजली

भारत माता के अमर सपूत हुतात्मा प्रथम परमवीर चक्र विजेता मेजर सोमनाथ शर्मा की 73वीं पुण्यतिथि पर कोटिश: पुष्पार्चन|

आज कश्मीर का जो हिस्सा भारत के पास है, उसका श्रेय जिन वीरों को है, उनमें से मेजर सोमनाथ शर्मा का नाम अग्रणी है। 31 जनवरी, 1922 को ग्राम डाढ (जिला कांगड़ा, हिमाचल प्रदेश) में मेजर अमरनाथ शर्मा के घर में सोमनाथ का जन्म हुआ। इनके गाँव से कुछ दूरी पर ही प्रसिद्ध तीर्थस्थल चामुण्डा नन्दिकेश्वर धाम है। सैनिक परिवार में जन्म लेने के कारण सोमनाथ शर्मा वीरता और बलिदान की कहानियाँ सुनकर बड़े हुए थे। देशप्रेम की भावना उनके खून की बूँद-बूँद में समायी थी।

15 अगस्त, 1947 को भारत के स्वतन्त्र होते ही देश का दुखद विभाजन भी हो गया। जम्मू कश्मीर रियासत के राजा हरिसिंह असमंजस में थे। वे अपने राज्य को स्वतन्त्र रखना चाहते थे। दो महीने इसी कशमकश में बीत गये। इसका लाभ उठाकर पाकिस्तानी सैनिक कबाइलियों के वेश में कश्मीर हड़पने के लिए टूट पड़े।

वहाँ सक्रिय शेख अब्दुल्ला कश्मीर को अपनी जागीर बनाकर रखना चाहता था। रियासत के भारत में कानूनी विलय के बिना भारतीय शासन कुछ नहीं कर सकता था। जब राजा हरिसिंह ने जम्मू कश्मीर को पाकिस्तान के प॰जे में जाते देखा, तब उन्होंने भारत के साथ विलय पत्र पर हस्ताक्षर किये।

इसके साथ ही भारत सरकार के आदेश पर सेना सक्रिय हो गयी। मेजर सोमनाथ शर्मा की कम्पनी को श्रीनगर के पास बड़गाम हवाई अड्डे की सुरक्षा की जिम्मेदारी दी गयी। वे केवल 100 सैनिकों की अपनी टुकड़ी के साथ वहाँ डट गये। दूसरी ओर सात सौ से भी अधिक पाकिस्तानी सैनिक जमा थे। उनके पास शस्त्रास्त्र भी अधिक थे; पर साहस की धनी मेजर सोमनाथ शर्मा ने हिम्मत नहीं हारी। उनका आत्मविश्वास अटूट था। उन्होंने अपने ब्रिगेड मुख्यालय पर समाचार भेजा कि जब तक मेरे शरीर में एक भी बूँद खून और मेरे पास एक भी जवान शेष है, तब तक मैं लड़ता रहूँगा।

दोनों ओर से लगातार गोलाबारी हो रही थी। कम सैनिकों और गोला बारूद के बाद भी मेजर की टुकड़ी हमलावरों पर भारी पड़ रही थी। 3 नवम्बर, 1947 को शत्रुओं का सामना करते हुए एक हथगोला मेजर सोमनाथ के समीप आ गिरा। उनका सारा शरीर छलनी हो गया। खून के फव्वारे छूटने लगे। इस पर भी मेजर ने अपने सैनिकों को सन्देश दिया - इस समय मेरी चिन्ता मत करो। हवाई अड्डे की रक्षा करो। दुश्मनों के कदम आगे नहीं बढ़ने चाहिए....। यह सन्देश देतेे हुए मेजर सोमनाथ शर्मा ने प्राण त्याग दिये।

उनके बलिदान से सैनिकों का खून खौल गया। उन्होंने तेजी से हमला बोलकर शत्रुओं को मार भगाया। यदि वह हवाई अड्डा हाथ से चला जाता, तो पूरा कश्मीर आज पाकिस्तान के कब्जे में होता। मेजर सोमनाथ शर्मा को मरणोपरान्त 'परमवीर चक्र' से सम्मानित किया गया। शौर्य और वीरता के इस अलंकरण के वे स्वतन्त्र भारत में प्रथम विजेता हैं। सेवानिवृत्त सेनाध्यक्ष जनरल विश्वनाथ शर्मा इनके छोटे भाई हैं।

The main theme of my life is to take the message of Sanatana Dharma to every home and pave the way for launching, in a big way, the man-making programme preached and envisaged by great seers like Swami Vivekananda. - Mananeeya Eknathji

विवेकानन्द केन्द्र कन्याकुमारी (Vivekananda Kendra Kanyakumari)
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra :
Read Article, Magazine, Book @
Cell : +91-941-801-5995, Landline : +91-177-283-5995

. . . Are you Strong? Do you feel Strength? — for I know it is Truth alone that gives Strength. Strength is the medicine for the world's disease . . .
This is the great fact: "Strength is LIFE; Weakness is Death."
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Saturday 31 October 2020

Rashtriya Ekta diwas - Homage to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

"One can take the path of revolution but the revolution should not give a shock to the society. " - Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

There is, of late, a revival of interest in Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Earlier everybody was content with a small lesson in school titled the 'Iron man of India'. We were content to learn that he lead the farmers' movement in Kheda first and then in Bardoli, near Surat in South Gujarat. Gandhiji had called him Sardar after the Bardoli Satyagraha was successful. Sardar Patel is being revisited in public arena perhaps to remind the youth of India that they need to emulate his basic and fundamental values in which he believed and fought for. It should be remembered however, that he was also an ordinary young man to begin with and his resolves and practices made him a strong leader. His life inspires the youth to follow the path he treaded.

In the above context it is important for us to understand Sardar Patel. It will be useful to know that Sardar Patel built his persona from his childhood by sheer hard work and experience. Born in an ordinary Patel family in Nadiad on October 31, 1875, whose main occupation was farming, Vallabh bhai was third son among five brothers. His father fought against Britishers along-with Rani Laxmibai in 1857.   His eldest brother Vitthal bhai Patel, who is also a great person in his own right in the history of India's Independence, had got most attention. All farm and family related labour and drudgery work came to this third son of the family. Vallabh bhai did it without resentment and hence gained immense experience and became worldly wise. It made him physically strong and mentally prepared to do every work that came his way. He developed robust qualities of being tough and straight. He has noted that that from his childhood he was blunt and bold. But he was bright. He went to school after he was twelve years of age. He was a good public speaker but used simple language. He had sense of humour. He was self-made man.

He was also warm and witty with those whom he came close to. However, he hardly disclosed what went on within. His commitment to the family was also noteworthy. It is worth recalling that in his youth he made a huge sacrifice for his elder brother Vitthal bhai. Vallabh bhai had worked hard as a pleader and saved substantial amount to pay for his expenses for going to England and studying law. He sent an application and received admission documents. However, the admission was granted to Mr. V.Z. Patel. Vitthal bhai his elder brother also wanted to go to England and study law. He saw the Cover containing the admission documents and suggested to his younger brother Vallabh bhai that he would go first as his name also happened to be V.Z. Patel! Vallabh bhai gracefully sacrificed his turn. He not only made way for Vitthal bhai, but also took care of his brother's wife with all respect and attention.

Unlike other young people of those days, Vallabh bhai finally went to England to become a Barrister when he was 37. Later on he started his practice in Ahmedabad and was soon successful. He had developed his interest in playing Bridge. He was observing Gandhiji but was yet reluctant to get into the programmes. But soon he developed deep admiration for Gandhiji. It is a peculiar chemistry that worked between the two. Let us remember that both met at a very mature age. Kochrab Ashram came up in 1915 and sometime in 1917 both met. Gandhiji was 47 and Sardar 40.

Vallabh bhai had settled in Ahmedabad and his practice was good. In 1917 he was also elected to Municipal Board. He had become Chairman of Sanitation committee. In the same year plague broke out in the city and Vallabh bhai Patel handled it firmly and well. He showed personal courage and made good arrangements to contain the epidemic. It was realised that the then Municipal Commissioner was not responding and great resentment had built up against him. Vallabh bhai Patel led the protest and got the Commissioner removed. The point to be noted is that Vallabh bhai Patel was already in public life and hence he measured Gandhiji and then went him. What impressed Vallabh bhai Patel most in Gandhiji was his quality of walking the talk. He could clearly see that Gandhiji did practice what he said should be done. Hence, when Gandhiji asked in the meeting for strong full time volunteers, Vallabh bhai Patel got enrolled. He provided competent leadership to farmers' 'no tax campaign'. Soon after Kheda Satyagrha he became a leader of repute in Congress and headed the Gujarat Provincial Congress Committee and he remained its President until 1946.

Gandhiji influenced Sardar Patel to the innermost core. He was fully convinced that Gandhiji's way was right for fighting for independence and he also internalised that without changing the self and adopting simplest possible material life it was not possible to be public arena and fight for the cause of freedom of nation. He gave up Western clothes and took up to regular spinning and wore Khadi. Vallabh bhai Patel accepted Gandhiji as his supreme leader and became a leader in his own right. He served the Gujarat Provincial Congress with his innate capability of organiser. He served the Ahmedabad Municipal Congress for a long time and between 1924 and 1928 he was President of Ahmedabad Municipality. He took strong decisions and withstood all kinds of adverse pressures. In widening the present Tilak Road of Ahmedabad he dealt sternly with the house and shop owners whose properties had to be removed. Some tried to give the problem a communal colour, but Vallabh bhai steadfastly tackled the problem as a physical planning issue in a municipal area.

Gandhiji called him Sardar after the Satyagraha offered by farmers in Bardoli in Surat District. Farmers were asked to pay more land revenue than what was due. Gandhiji asked Vallabhbhai to take up the cause. An able organiser that he was, Vallabh bhai galvanised extraordinary courage among farmers. British administration would attach moveable and immoveable property in lieu of revenue. Vallabh bhai also inspired women of the area to such an extent that women challenged their men to fight and go to jail for the cause. It was long drawn battle, but ultimately, the British government gave in. Due credit came Vallbha bhai's way and Gandhiji called him Sardar. Swaraj Ashram Bardoli was set up which until today is a live organisation trying to work on Gandhian principles.

A lesser known fact is that Sardar Patel was one of the co-founders of Gujarat Vidyapith, Ahmedabad with Gandhiji and other associates. He was Vice Chancellor for long years from 1930 onward and also functioned as its Chancellor in 1948 after the Gandhiji's assassination. His frankness and firmness are reflected in the following incidence. In 1933-34 when the Government decided to seal Gujarat Vidyapith, Gandhiji and Kaka Saheb Kalelkar took decision to transfer the University Library to the Ahmedabad Municipality. Sardar Patel was in jail. When he came out of the Jail, he learned about this decision. He confronted Gandhiji and told him that his decision was arbitrary. Only the full Board of Governors could take such a decision in a formal meeting. Gandhiji conceded the point and Sardar got the University Library back. Today, Gujarat Vidyapith Libraries is one of biggest Library in Gujarat with more than eight lakh books.

After Independence Sardar Patel showed rare nerves of steel in unifying the country. Sardar Patel Integrated 562 Princely States. The success of his endeavours are sung loudly and deservingly so, but one should not underestimate tremendous pressure which he went through. It affected his health. He suffered heart attack and could not really recoup. He passed away on December 15, 1950.

Getting Junagadh Nawab and other princely states in Saurashtra was not easy task. It took all persuasion and covert exercise of power and authority. This feature of his personality blossomed fully in the process of integrating the princely states. Getting Hyderabad Nawab to surrender is a story of steel will and display of well calibrated power. So was the case of Bhopal. Sardar understood the complexity of the Kashmir problem and was in agreement with Nehru. He would have liked to try and handle in a different way.

Hard work, honesty, frankness, firmness, cool and steely nerves made Vallabh bhai real Sardar – the leader. He shows us the way. It is slogging with all will that you gain heights. It is as said, one per cent inspiration and ninety nine per cent perspiration.

(Edited Version of Article published in Employment News in Editorial Section : The author is former Vice Chancellor, Gujarat Vidyapeeth, Ahmedabad)

The main theme of my life is to take the message of Sanatana Dharma to every home and pave the way for launching, in a big way, the man-making programme preached and envisaged by great seers like Swami Vivekananda. - Mananeeya Eknathji

विवेकानन्द केन्द्र कन्याकुमारी (Vivekananda Kendra Kanyakumari)
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra :
Read Article, Magazine, Book @
Cell : +91-941-801-5995, Landline : +91-177-283-5995

. . . Are you Strong? Do you feel Strength? — for I know it is Truth alone that gives Strength. Strength is the medicine for the world's disease . . .
This is the great fact: "Strength is LIFE; Weakness is Death."
Follow us on   blog   twitter   youtube   facebook   g+   delicious   rss   Donate Online

Thursday 29 October 2020

Sister Nivedita: the friend of all

The mother's heart, the hero's will
The sweetness of the southern breeze,
The sacred charm and strength that dwell,
On Aryan altars, flaming, free;
All these be yours and many more,
No ancient soul could dream before-
Be thou to India's future son,

The mistress, servant, friend in one -Swami Vivekananda (The complete Works of SV /Volume 6)    In a poem written for Sister Nivedita, Swami Vivekananda regarded her as the mistress, servant, but overall a  friend in one. Consistent with the meaning of her name Sister,she dedicated, offered, and surrendered her life with selfless service and gave her all to the India. Born as Margaret Elizabeth Nobel on 28th October 1867 in Ireland, she became a teacher at the age of just seventeen. It was in 1892 when she established her own school at Wimbledon after successfully completing her education and workings as a teacher in different schools around Ireland and England. Soon she registered her name in leading writers and intellectuals of London. According to Mata Pravrajika Atmapran's work Sister Nivedita of Ramakrishna-Vivekananda  she joined the ' Sesame Club' in London where some of the most learned and influential people were associated like George Bernard Shaw, Thomas Huxley, Lady Ripon and Lady Isabel Margesson among others. At the Club discussions were held here on literature, ethics, politics, and kindred subjects.

Her life took a turn when she met Swami Vivekananda in London on November 1895.  A vivid description of her first meeting with Swami Vivekananda is given in her book ''The Master as I saw him.''It was a cold afternoon, Swami Vivekananda was explaining Vedanta philosophy in the drawing-room of an aristocratic family in London. In 1904 Sister Nivedita wrote to a friend about her meeting and following Swami Vivekananda after her meeting with him in England in November 1895: ''Suppose he had not come to London that time! Life would have been a headless dream, for I always knew that I was waiting for something. I always said that a call would come. And it did. But if I had known more of life, I doubt whether, when the time came, I should certainly have recognized it.''[i]

On Swami Vivekananda''s call ,she came to India on 28th January 1898 leaving behind her motherland, family and friends, and established a  life to serve the people of India in the field of women education, health, and taking up the task of nation-building which she continued till her last breath. On 25 March 1898, she took monastic orders. Swami Vivekananda initiated her into the vow of Brahmacharya and renamed her 'Nivedita'.

Sister Nivedita worked and inspired many Indians from different fields.

Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose- In the year 1898 for the first time Sister Nivedita came to Know about Dr. Bose.

At that time Dr. Bose had a good status in science in Western Countries. She once said "Men of the inventor and discoverer type —men like Marconi, Tesla, Machine, and so on—rank in the world of science far below the investigator, the man of Sannyasin mind like Dr. Bose, who pursued knowledge for its own sake".[2]

She was horrified to find that the way in which a great worker could be subjected to such ordeal  and petty difficulties because of people who had earnest desire to end his distinction. He even faced racial discrimination to the extent that his college-routine was made as arduous as possible for him so that he could not have the time he needed for his research. And every little thing that happened was made an excuse for irritating correspondence and flagrant misrepresentation. At this stage, Sister Nivedita came and showed the light to Dr. JC Bose. In the year 1911 on his birth anniversary, Bose said "This day 17 years ago I resolved to put all my strength for science. For five years I worked all by Myself, struggling hard. And when my strength was nearly gone then she came to help me." [3]She knew very well the need of Scientific Growth in the Growth of Bharat, and Importance of Bose work in the Growth of Scientific activities in Bharat. She used to regard Dr. Bose as a National asset.

In 1901 when everyone stopped publishing Bose Research papers, then she motivated him to write his own book and assisted him in writing his scientific papers and books. Being 10 years younger than her,  She used to treat him like his child, in many of his letters she referred to him as 'Bairin' (Child), served him as if she were his mother , struggled all the time between work for the country and the national longing.Rabindranath Tagore, Common friend of Sister Nivedita and Dr. JC Bose ,after the Death of JC Bose said "On the day of his success Jagdish gained an invaluable energizer in Sister Nivedita and in any of his life work, she must be given a place of honor". [4]It was Nivedita's wish to have a Vigyaan Mandir which Dr. Bose completed later on an established 'Bose Vigyaan Mandir' on 30 November 1917. At the entrance to the building is a marble relief of Sister Nivedita by the renowned sculptor, Padmasri Vinayak Pandurang Karmakar. This was done on the lines of Nandalal Bose's famous painting of Nivedita, named "The lady with the lamp". Institute symbol is Vajra( Thunderbolt) which is the symbol of Rishi Dadachi's sacrifice, which is also the wish of Sister Nivedita. Nivedita wanted to make this our National symbol.[5]

Rabindranath Tagore – Sister Nivedita was well introduced to the Tagore family who had a deep respect for hereven though they had few differences regarding certain issues. Nivedita also had become a guest in the house of the Tagore family. She denied Rabindranath Tagore when he asked her to teach her younger daughter English by saying "'What is the good in imposing foreign ideals and standards? I think the proper education is to draw out that which lies latent as one's individual potentiality, as also the national skill.'  Later he founded Santiniketan Ashram,  an education institute working on the path of ancient Indian tradition and culture. For her service towards India, Rabindranath Tagore  gave her the title "Lokmata" and said  "The life Sister Nivedita gave for us was a very great life. There was no defrauding of us on her part — that is, she gave herself up fully for the service of India; she did not keep anything back for her own use."[ii]

With Aurobindo Ghose - Sister Nivedita first met Sri Aurobindo  at Baroda in 1902 when he was a professor in Baroda College at the age of thirty and was not part of active politics. For Sister Nivedita Sri Aurobindo  was a leader for the future and she informed him about the political developments in Bengal. She asked him to join the Indian Independence movement at Calcutta as both of them were supporters of ''aggressive nationalism ''.  According to the Biography of Sister Nivedita written by Lizelle Reymond  Sister Nivedita was  among the five members of the political committee which Aurobindo Ghosh Appointed to unite in a single organization, the small and scattered groups of rebels which had sprung into existence and were acting without reference to one another."The other members were P. Mitra, a lawyer, and revolutionary leader, Jotin Banerje, C. R- Das, and Surendranath Tagore.[iii]She also wrote editorials for Yugantar  Bande Mataram , Dharma and Karmayogin started or co- founded by Sri Aurobindo .

Abanindra Nath Tagore and Nandalal Bose – Sister Nivedita was fond of art and for her art was not just for entertainment purpose but an important tool for awakening of nation conciseness. She was very much impressed by Ajanta frescoes and Ellora caves as according to her they celebrated the unity of India. When she met Indian artists like Abanindranath Tagore, Ananda Coomaraswamy  and Surendranath Gangopadhyay, and Nandalal Bose, she  inspired them to develop a pure Indian school of art. She always inspired and guided the talented students of the Calcutta Art School to move along the forgotten tracks of ancient Indian art. She is also seen as an inspiration behind Abanindra Nath Tagore's iconic work of 'Bharat Mata'. Abanindra Nath Tagore's love and respect towards Sister  Nivedita can be understood by his own words ' amongst the foreigners who really loved India, Nivedita's place is the highest'.[iv]

Other eminent leaders whom Nivedita worked and inspired includes scientist  Basiswar Sen, artists educationist  Brajendra Nath Sil, Ramananda Chattopadhyay, and  Kumud Bandhu Sen, poet Subramanya Bharati, historian Sir Jadunath Sarkar and also  freedom fighters like Mahatma Gandhi, Rasbihari Ghosh, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Barin Chandra Ghosh, Bipin Chandra Pal among others. [v] Freedom fighters and Indian nationalist Netaji Subhash  Chandra Bose once said " I learned to love India by reading Vivekananda and I came to Understand Vivekananda through Nivedita's  writings. "[vi]

(Writers –Nikhil Yadav is a State Youth Head at Vivekananda Kendra, Uttar Prant and Maitri Rautela she is District Youth Head of East Delhi, Vivekananda Kendra, Uttar Prant).


The main theme of my life is to take the message of Sanatana Dharma to every home and pave the way for launching, in a big way, the man-making programme preached and envisaged by great seers like Swami Vivekananda. - Mananeeya Eknathji

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Wednesday 28 October 2020

Thoughts of Bhagini Nivedita

भगिनी निवेदिता का संदेश : सन्दर्भ - रिलिजन एंड धर्म

1) समरांगण में सदैव अग्रपंक्ति (पहली पंक्ति) में रहते हुए भी हम विजय की सभा में, पारितोषिक वितरण में, पीछे रहें। सीता की खोज, लंका-दहन, द्रोणगिरि के लाने आदि जितने भी कठिन कार्य आए, हनुमान सबसे आगे रहे, पर राज्याभिषेक के पश्चात् राज्यसभा में जब प्रभु रामचन्द्र सबको पारितोषिक वितरण करने लगे तो वे एक ओर रामनाम स्मरण में तल्लीन थे। ऐसे पवनसुत हनुमान सेवकों के आदर्श हैं। वे आदर्श स्वयंसेवक हैं। यही स्वयंसेवक वृत्ति प्रत्येक कार्यकर्ता की हो।

2) कार्य छोटा हो या बड़ा, मन को सदा संकल्प के वश में रहना चाहिए। समस्या कोई भी हो, उसका सामना करने के लिए मन को समर्थ बनाना चाहिए, जिससे समस्या का उचित और सही ढंग से हल निकालने में वह सफल हो। किसी राष्ट्र के लोगों को पूर्वापेक्षा कम और निःसत्त्व अन्न मिले तो एक बार चल सकता है, किन्तु मन दुर्बल नहीं होना चाहिए। पेट भूखा रहे तो कोई बात नहीं, मन भूखा न रहे। मन को उसका खाद्य मिलना चाहिए, योग्य और तेजस्वी शिक्षा मिलनी चाहिए। 

3) वर्तमान क्षण से पवित्रतर कोई क्षण न था, न होगा। प्राचीन काल अच्छा था और आज का बूरा, ऐसी कोई बात नहीं। समाज-हित के लिए जो भी काम हम करें, वह श्रेष्ठतम है। चाहे वह बुनाई हो या सफाई, लेखा कर्म हो या वेदाध्ययन, ध्यान धारणा का तप हो या शत्रु को मारा हुआ घूंसा हो।

4) राष्ट्रीय अस्मिता, समष्टि भावना ये सबकुछ हमारे पास है; केवल नवीन कार्य क्षेत्रों में नवीन विधियों से हमें उसका अविष्कार मात्र करना है। सेवाभाव और आत्म-त्याग के गुणों से भी हम वंचित नहीं हैं, हमें इन्हें राष्ट्रार्पण करना है।

5) जिस प्रकार सब ओर से घिरा मनुष्य वायु के लिए, अकाल पीड़ित अन्न के लिए अथवा प्यासा पानी के लिए व्याकुल रहता है, उसी तरह हमें नवीन ज्ञान एवं अनुभव के लिए आतुर और उत्कंठित होना चाहिए।

6) निःस्वार्थ राष्ट्र सेवा के द्वारा जिसने अपने आपको पवित्र एवं शुद्ध कर लिया हो, वही जीवन के उस अन्तिम और परमोच्च त्याग अथवा संन्यास के लिए सिद्ध हो सकता है, जिसे हम ज्ञान, भक्ति अथवा कर्मयोग कहते हैं।

7) वास्तव में ज्ञान ही जीवन का मुख्य भोजन, मुख्य आहार है। यह भोजन जिसे शुद्ध एवं उचित मात्रा में मिल सका उसका जीवन कृतार्थ हो गया। आइए, हम शीघ्रता करें और अपने आसपास  के समस्त जनों को अपनी क्षमता के अनुसार उत्तमोत्तम ज्ञान प्रदान करें, और उनका और अपना जीवन सार्थक करें।

8) हमें ऐसे कलाकार चाहिए जो कवि भी हों और चित्रकार भी। जिनमें हृदय और बुद्धि, भावना और विचार, गद्य और पद्य संलग्न हो, जिनके हृदय में भारत-भक्ति हो, जिनकी नसों में भारतीय रक्त हो, ऐसे कलाकार चाहिए।

9) 'हिन्दुस्थान-हिन्दुस्थान' यह घोषणा मात्र संसार को सुनाने के लिए ही न हो वरन अपने हृदय के अंतःकरण में भी यही ध्वनि गूंजती रहे। यही कला का ध्येय, गन्तव्य और मन्तव्य; यही प्राप्तव्य, यही निदिध्यासितत्व!  

10) समाज की चिंता न करते हुए अकेले मोक्ष साधना करना भी दोषपूर्ण है और शुद्ध संस्कार ग्रहण कर परिष्कृत हुए बिना समाज सेवा करना भी सदोष है। इसका अभिप्राय है- चरित्र ही आध्यात्मिकता है।

11) जिस ध्येय की पूर्ति के लिए एक त्यागी पुरुष जन्मा, वही ध्येय उस जैसे अन्य अनोकों का निर्माण करेगा।

12) हम अपने कार्य, अपने कर्म के प्रति प्रमाणिक हों। हमारा ध्येय, हमारा कर्तव्य यही हमारा स्वधर्म है।

13) हम पर किये गए विश्वास का घात करना मानो अवनितल की महानतम दुर्गति है।

14) मुक्ति की धुन का त्याग ही वास्तविक मुक्ति है।

15) राजा हो तो जनक जैसा और भिक्षार्थी हो तो शुकदेव जैसा। राजा का भी आदर्श उपभोग शून्य स्वामी, विदेही जनक का है। राजा हो या योगी, सबका ध्येय एक- नर से नारायण बनाना। 

- भगिनी निवेदिता

(courtesy Shri Lakheshwar ji) 

भारतीय स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन में भगिनी निवेदिता की भूमिका

(28 - अक्टूबर, विशेष श्रद्धांनजली भगीनि निवेदिता को )

भगिनी निवेदिता से अधिकतर भारतीय परिचित नहीं हैं और अगर कुछ है भी तो वे उनको मात्र स्वामी विवेकानंद की एक शिष्या के रूप में जानते है। इतिहास और इतिहासकारों ने उनके साथ न्याय नहीं किया ।  भला हम भगिनी निवेदिता के अपने गुरु स्वामी विवेकानंद के प्रति श्रद्धा , भारत के लिए  सेवा का संकल्प और भारतीयों के लिए किया गया त्याग  कैसे भूल सकते हैं। उन्होंने  उस समय के गुलाम देश भारत के अनजान लोगों के बीच शिक्षा और  स्वास्थ के क्षेत्र में सेवा देने का कार्य किया। अंग्रेज़ो की भारतीयों के ऊपर क्रूरता देखि तो सहन नहीं कर पाई और  स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन में कूद गई भारत की आज़ादी के लिए दो -दो हाथ करने।  भगिनी निवेदिता ने सेवा का कार्य निस्वार्थ भाव से किया , ना कोई इच्छा - अनिच्छा , ना कोई धर्मांतरण का छलावा , वह भारत में आकर भारतीयता के रंग में रंग ही  गई। स्वामीनाथन गुरुमूर्ति जी के अनुसार  '' वह भारत में भले ही ना पैदा हुई हो लेकिन भारत के लिए पैदा हुई थी ''। स्वाधीनता आंदोलन की रूपरेखा तैयार करने में प्रमुख भूमिका निभाने वाली लाल-बाल-पाल की तिकड़ी में से एक विपिनचंद्र पाल कहते हैं की ''निवेदिता जिस प्रकार भारत को प्रेम करती हैं , भारतवासियों ने भी भारत को उतना प्रेम किया होगा - इसमें संदेह हैं''। उनका  भारत के प्रति  स्नेह उनकी पुस्तके ''काली द मदर '', ''द वेब ऑफ इन्डियन लाइफ'' ,''क्रेडिल टेल्स ऑफ हिन्दुइज्म '',''एन इन्डियन स्टडी ऑफ लाइफ एन्ड डेथ '', ''मिथ्स ऑफ हिन्दूज एन्ड बुद्धिस्टस '' , ''फुटफाल्स ऑफ इन्डियन हिस्ट्री '', ''रिलिजन एन्ड धर्म '', ''सिविक एन्ड नेशनल आइडियल्स् '' को पढ़ कर जाना जा सकता है। 

भगिनी निवेदिता की भारतीय स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन में अहम भागीदारी रही  - निवेदिता एक प्रखर और ओजस्वी वक्ता  एक साथ साथ एक कुशल लेखिका भी थी।  उनके लेखों ने उस समय हज़ारों युवाओं को स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन से जुड़ने के लिए प्रेरित किया था। जिसके कारन   ब्रिटिश सरकार के अधिकारी  उनकी जासूसी करते थे और उनके द्वारा लिखे गए पत्रों को सरकार पढ़ती  थी। 

निवेदिता को जब अंग्रेज़ों की भारतीयों के प्रति द्वेष और दमनकारी नीतियों के बारे में पता लगा तो उनके वैचारिक दृष्टि में परिवर्तन आने लगा Iउनको राजकीय स्वतंत्रता सबसे अधिक महत्वपूर्ण लगने लगी थी उनका मानना था सामाजिक,धार्मिक और सांस्कृतिक पुनरुत्थान के लिए देश का स्वाधीन होना बहुत आवश्यक है।

सितम्बर 1902 से निवेदिता ने पूरे भारत में स्वतंत्रता के लिए जनजागृति शुरू करदी थी, दमनकारी अंग्रेज़ी शासन के खिलाफ वो सीधा आवाज़ उठाती थी I '' लिजेल रेमंड '' द्वारा लिखित भगिनी निवेदिता की जीवनी के अनुसार  20 अक्टूबर , 1902 को  निवेदिता बड़ौदा  पहुंची जहा उन्होंने  योगी अरविन्द से मुलाकात की योगी अरविन्द  उस समय 30 वर्ष की उम्र के थे।निवेदिता ने  उनको  कलकत्ता में चल रही राजनैतिक गतिविधयों से अवगत करवाया।  उन्होंने  योगी अरविन्द को  कलकत्ता आकर  स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन में सहभागी बनने का निमंत्रण  भी दिया और उसकी आवश्यकता भी समझाई। आने वाले समय में योगी अरविन्द और भगिनी निवेदिता ने साथ मिलकर स्वतंत्रता के लिए कार्य करते है। 1902 में महात्मा गाँधी भी भगिनी निवेतिता से कलकत्ता में मिले थे।  

1904 में भारत का प्रथम राष्ट्रीय ध्वज भी भगिनी निवेदिता द्वारा चित्रित किया गया था। ध्वज में लाल और पीले रंग की पट्टिया थी और वज्र (हथियारों के देवता इंद्रा ) जो की ताक़त का प्रतिक है  दर्शाया गया था। 
1906 और 1907 में ब्रिटिश सरकार की अनैतिक नीतियों के खिलाफ भगिनी निवेदिता ने भारतीय समाज को जागरूक करने के लिए लेख लिखने का कार्य सुनियोजित तरीके से शुरू कर दिया , प्रबुद्ध भारत , संध्या और न्यू इंडिया जैसे पत्रों में उनके लेख प्रकशित हुए। योगी अरविन्द के साथ  उन्होंने युगान्तर , कर्म -योगिन  और "वंदे मातरम" जैसे पत्रों में भी सेवा दी।    
 शिल्पकार अवनीन्द्रनाथ ठाकुर और चित्रकार नंदलाल बोस को राष्ट्रवादी चित्र बनाने के लिए और दक्षिण भारत के कवी सुब्रमणियम भारती को श्रृंगार रस की कविताएँ छोड़ कर वीर रस की कविताएँ लिखने के लिए प्रेरित करती है ताकि इनके माध्यम से युवा प्रेरित हो और स्वतंत्रता आंदोलन में  भाग ले I 

वैज्ञानिक जगदीश चन्द्र बसु के परिवार के साथ भी निवेदिता के आत्मीय सम्बन्ध थे, डॉ. बसु को उनके शोध कार्य में और मानसिक रूप से निवेदिता सहयोग करती थी I 1905 में लार्ड कर्जन बंगाल का विभाजन कर देते है Iबंगाल में स्वदेशी आंदोलन का बिगुल बज जाता है , निवेदिता भी उसमें सहभागिता निभाती  हैं और अंग्रेज़ो से सीधा दो-दो हाथ करती है I स्वदेशी का महत्व बताने के लिए आम सभाओं का आयोजन किया गया। भगिनी निवेदिता को वक्त के तौर पर इन सभाओं में बुलाया जाता था जहा वह स्वदेश का प्रचार - प्रसार भी करती थी और स्वावलम्बी बनने का सन्देश भी देती थी। सभी क्रांतिकारियों के संगठित प्रयास से विभाजन वापस लिया गया। 1905 बनारस  में  कांग्रेस  का अधिवेशन भी आजोजित किया गया था जिसमे गोपाल कृष्ण गोखले अध्यक्ष रहे।  भगिनी निवेदिता को भी निमंत्रित किया गया था , नरम और गरम दाल के दोनों नेता वह पहुंचे थे जिनके साथ भगिनी का अच्छा परिचय हुआ जो बाद में अंग्रेज़ो के खिलाफ आंदोलन करने में काम आया।  रबिन्द्रनाथ टैगोर निवेदिता के कार्य को देख कर उनको ''लोकमाता''का दर्जा देते है I उनके कार्य के महत्व को हम भारतीय इतिहास के सबसे बड़े क्रांतिकारियों मेसे एक सुभाष चंद्र बोस के शब्दों से जान सकते है जो उन्होंने  भगिनी निवेदिता के बारे में कहे की -'' मैंने भारत को प्रेम करना सीखा स्वामी विवेकानंद को पढ़ कर और स्वामी विवेकानंद को मैंने समझा भगिनी निवेदिता के पत्रों से ''I

स्वास्थ्य बिगड़ जाने के कारन मात्र 44 साल की उम्र में 13 अक्टूबर 1911 को  बंगाल के  एक नगर दार्जीलिंग में उनका निधन हो गया।

(लेखक निखिल यादव - विवेकानंद केंद्र के उत्तर प्रान्त के युवा प्रमुख हैं और दिल्ली विश्वविद्यालय से इतिहास में परास्नातक की डिग्री प्राप्त की और जवाहरलाल नेहरू विश्वविद्यालय से वैदिक संस्कृति में सीओपी कर रहे हैं। )


The main theme of my life is to take the message of Sanatana Dharma to every home and pave the way for launching, in a big way, the man-making programme preached and envisaged by great seers like Swami Vivekananda. - Mananeeya Eknathji

विवेकानन्द केन्द्र कन्याकुमारी (Vivekananda Kendra Kanyakumari)
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra :
Read Article, Magazine, Book @
Cell : +91-941-801-5995, Landline : +91-177-283-5995

. . . Are you Strong? Do you feel Strength? — for I know it is Truth alone that gives Strength. Strength is the medicine for the world's disease . . .
This is the great fact: "Strength is LIFE; Weakness is Death."
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Saturday 15 August 2020

Best Wishes on 74th Independence Day : In Remembrance of Rani Abbakka

In Dakshina Kannada's Bantwal taluk, a historian has erected a museum in the memory of a 16th-century warrior queen. The man behind the museum, called Tulu Baduku Museum, is Prof. Thukaram Poojary and his subject is Rani Abbakka Chowta of Ullal.

The only woman in history to confront, fight and repeatedly defeat the Portuguese, Rani Abbakka's unflagging courage and indomitable spirit are at par with the legendary Rani Laxmi Bai of Jhansi, Rani Rudramma Devi of Warangal and Rani Chennamma of Kittur.

The year was 1555. Portuguese colonial power was at its peak in the 1500's. They destroyed Zamorins of Calicut. Defeated the Sultan of Bijapur. Took away Daman from the Sultan of Gujarat, Established a colony in Mylapore, Captured Bombay and made Goa as their headquarters. And while they were at it, pretty much unchallenged, they even ruined the ancient Kapaleeswarar Temple to build a Church over it.

Their next target, the super profitable port of Mangalore.

Their only bad luck, just 14 kilometers south of Mangalore was the small settlement of Ullal - ruled then by a feisty 30 year old woman - RANI ABBAKKA CHOWTA

Initially, they took her lightly and sent a few boats and soldiers to capture and bring her back to Goa - Those boats never came back.

Shocked and enraged, they sent a huge fleet of ships this time, under the command of much celebrated Admiral Dom Álvaro da Silveira - The admiral soon returned, badly injured and empty handed.

Thereafter, another Portuguese fleet was sent - only a few injured from the crew managed to make it back.

Then the Portuguese went on to capture the Mangalore port and the fort anyways, perhaps planning to tackle Rani Abbakka Chowta from the convenient distance of the Mangalore fort.

After the successful capture of Mangalore, a huge army under João Peixoto, an experienced Portuguese General was sent to Ullal.

The Portuguese reached Ullal and found it deserted. Abbakka was nowhere in sight.

They roamed around, relaxed and thanked their stars - Just when they were about to call it a victory - Mrs Chowta attacked with 200 of her chosen men - there was chaos all around and many portuguese lost their lives even without a fight.

General João Peixoto was assassinated, 70 Portuguese were captured and the rest just ran away.

Rani Abbakka Chowta, rode with her men towards Mangalore that same night, and laid a siege of the Mangalore fort - She not just broke inside the fort successfully - but assassinated Admiral Mascarenhas the Chief of the Portuguese power there and forced the remaining Portuguese to vacate the fort.

She didn't just stop at this but went on to even capture the Portuguese settlement at Kundapura, a full 100 kms, north of Mangalore - Just to make a point.

Her piercing battle cry – "Save the motherland. Fight them on land and the sea. Fight them on the streets and the beaches. Push them back to the waters", echoed through winds as she and her soldiers fired flaming arrows at the Portuguese ships.

While many of the ships in the Portuguese armada burnt that night, Rani Abbakka was wounded in the crossfire and was captured by the enemy with the help of a few bribed chieftains. Rebellious till the very end, the fearless queen breathed her last in captivity. However, her legacy lived on through her equally fierce and brave daughters who continued to defend Tulu Nadu from the Portuguese.

A warrior queen who gave her life in defence of her freedom and motherland, Rani Abbakka remained a major thorn in the Portuguese' side throughout her rule despite their superior military power. This itself speaks volumes about her courage and ingenuity.

Dakshin Kannada has been holding an annual celebration in her memory (Veera Rani Abbakka Utsava) for the last few years.
In 2003, Indian Post issued a special stamp dedicated to Rani Abbakka while in 2015, the Indian Navy acknowledged her naval heroics by naming a patrol vessel after her.


The main theme of my life is to take the message of Sanatana Dharma to every home and pave the way for launching, in a big way, the man-making programme preached and envisaged by great seers like Swami Vivekananda. - Mananeeya Eknathji

विवेकानन्द केन्द्र कन्याकुमारी (Vivekananda Kendra Kanyakumari)
Vivekananda Rock Memorial & Vivekananda Kendra :
Read Article, Magazine, Book @
Cell : +91-941-801-5995, Landline : +91-177-283-5995

. . . Are you Strong? Do you feel Strength? — for I know it is Truth alone that gives Strength. Strength is the medicine for the world's disease . . .
This is the great fact: "Strength is LIFE; Weakness is Death."
Follow us on   blog   twitter   youtube   facebook   g+   delicious   rss   Donate Online